Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 16, Issue 11, pp 2622–2639 | Cite as

Roads as sources of heavy metals in urban areas. The Covões catchment experiment, Coimbra, Portugal

  • António J. D. FerreiraEmail author
  • Daniel Soares
  • Luís M. V. Serrano
  • Rory P. D. Walsh
  • Celia Dias-Ferreira
  • Carla S. S. Ferreira
Urban Soils and Sediments

Abstract

Purpose

This work studies the implications of different traffic patterns for heavy metal and solid pollution generation processes following rainfall events with contrasting antecedent meteorological conditions, at a periurban catchment. The aim is to provide information on the pollution processes and their potential environmental impacts for urban areas.

Materials and methods

Seven campaigns were performed covering winter, spring, and summer conditions, for rainfall events with different antecedent conditions. Four types of roads were monitored: low traffic, average traffic, heavy traffic with demanding driving situations (break and turning), and heavy traffic with high vehicle speed (motorway profile). Samples were taken at the beginning, middle and end of the events to measure within event variation in concentration. Analytical standard procedures were used to quantify pH, conductivity, turbidity, total solids, volatile solids, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the total and dissolved forms (as to infer the particulate fraction), namely copper, zinc, cadmium and lead.

Results and discussion

The collected data show a direct relation among the number of vehicles and/or the driving manoeuvres performed by them and the amount of solids and heavy metals present in the wash out overland flow collected. An important fraction of the heavy metals is washed off in the particulate form, which represents an increased problem since the road overland flow is directed to green/brown areas and for the local aquatic ecosystems. Maximum copper values recorded exceed 0.6 mh L−1, zinc exceeds 5 mg L−1, lead 0.1 mg L−1 and cadmium 0.01 mg L−1. Values are higher after long dry spells and reduce concentration throughout the rainfall events.

Conclusions

An important part of the heavy metals (with relevance for zinc and lead) are washed off in the particulate form, pollutants are typically related to the amount of traffic, and especially to the existence of driving manoeuvres. The summer events show the highest values, due to the accumulation of pollutants during the long dry spells.

Keywords

Heavy metals Road wash-off Storm events Suspended sediments Traffic intensity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been funded by the Portuguese National Funds through FCT – Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology under project UID/AMB/00681/2013, and the research project PTDC/AUR-URB/123089/2010 – FRURB - Managing Flood Risk in Urban areas in a global change context. C. Dias-Ferreira gratefully acknowledges Fundação para a Ciência e para a Tecnologia (FCT) for financial support (SFRH/BPD/100717/2014). We acknowledge Mr. António Ventura Ferreira and Mrs. Mª da Encarnação P.D. Ferreira for their logistical support.

References

  1. Adamcová D, Vaverková MD, Barton S, Havlícek Z, Broušková E (2016) Soil contamination in landfills: a case study of a landfill in Czech Republic. Solid Earth, 7:239–247Google Scholar
  2. Amato F, Querol X, Johansson C, Nagl C, Alastuey A (2010a) A review on the effective-ness of street sweeping, washing and dust suppressants as urban PM control methods. Sci Total Environ 408:3070–3084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amato F, Nava S, Lucarelli F, Querol X, Alastuey A, Baldasano JM, Pandolfi M (2010b) A comprehensive assessment of PM emissions from paved roads: real-world emission factors and intense street cleaning trials. Sci Total Environ 408:4309–4318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amato F, Cassee FR, Denier van der Gon HA, Gehrig R, Gustafsson M, Hafner W, Harrison RM, Jozwicka M, Kelly FJ, Moreno T, Prevot AS, Schaap M, Sunyer J, Querol X (2014) Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions. J Hazard Mater 275:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Apeagyei E, Bank MS, Spengler JD (2011) Distribution of heavy metals in road dust along an urban-rural gradient in Massachusetts. Atmos Environ 45:2310–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. APHA (1998) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, APHA, AWWA, WEF, 20th ed. WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Blau PJ, Meyer HM III (2003) Characteristics of wear particles produced during friction tests of conventional and unconventional disc brake materials. Wear 255:1261–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brevik EC, Sauer TJ (2015) The past, present, and future of soils and human health studies. SOIL, 1:35–46. doi: 10.5194/soil-1-35-2015
  9. Brunekreef B, Forsberg B (2005) Epidemiological evidence of effects of coarse airborne particles on health. Eur Resp J 26:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burges A, Epelde L, Garbisu C (2015) Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality. Chemosphere 120:8–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Charron A, Harrison RM, Quincey P (2007) What are the sources and conditions responsible for exceedences of the 24 h PM10 limit value (50 μg m−3) at a heavily trafficked London site? Atmos Environ 41:1960–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng Y, Lee SC, Ho KF, Chow JC, Watson JG, Louie PKK, Cao JJ, Hai X (2010) Chemically-speciated on-road PM2.5 motor vehicle emission factors in Hong Kong. Sci Total Environ 408 (7):1621--1627Google Scholar
  13. Councell TB, Duckenfield KU, Landa ER, Callender E (2004) Tire wear particles as a source of Zn to the environment. Environ Sci Technol 38:4206–4214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crosby CJ, Fullen MA, Booth CA, Searle DE (2014) A dynamic approach to urban road deposited sediment pollution monitoring (Marylebone Road, London, UK). J Appl Geophys 105:10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dias-Ferreira C, Pato RL, Varejão JB, Tavares A, Ferreira AJD (2016) Heavy metal and PCB spatial distribution pattern in sediments within an urban catchment - Contribution of historical pollution sources. J Soils Sediments. This issueGoogle Scholar
  16. Duong TT, Lee BK (2011) Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics. J Environ Manag 92:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferreira AJD, Pardal J, Malta M, Ferreira CSS, Soares DJ, Vilhena J (2013) Improving urban ecosystems resilience at a city level. The Coimbra case study. Energy Procedia 40:6–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ferreira CSS, Walsh RPD, Steenhuis TS, Shakesby RA, Nunes JPN, Coelho COA, Ferreira AJD (2015) Spatiotemporal variability of hydrologic soil properties and the implications for overland flow and land management in a peri-urban Mediterranean catchment. J Hydrol 525:249–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ferreira CSS, Walsh RPD, Costa ML, Coelho COA, Ferreira AJD (2016a) Dynamics of surface water quality driven by distinct urbanization patterns and storms in a Portuguese peri-urban catchment. doi: 10.1007/s1136801614234 (this issue)
  20. Ferreira CSS, Walsh RPD, Nunes JPC, Steenhuis TS, Nunes M, de Lima JLMP, Coelho COA, Ferreira AJD (2016b) Impact of urban development on streamflow regime of a Portuguese peri-urban Mediterranean catchment. J Soils Sediments. doi: 10.1007/s11368-.16-1386-5 (this issue)Google Scholar
  21. Ferreira CSS, Walsh RPD, Shakesby RA, Keizer JJ, Soares D, González-Pelayo O, Coelho COA, Ferreira AJD (2016c) Differences in overland flow, hydrophobicity and soil moisture dynamics between Mediterranean woodland types in a peri-urban catchment in Portugal. J Hydrol 533:473–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freni G, Mannina G, Viviani G (2008) Uncertainty in urban stormwater quality modelling: the effect of acceptability threshold in the GLUE methodology. Water Res 42:2061–2072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garg BD, Cadle SH, Mulawa PA, Groblicki PJ, Laroo C, Parr GA (2000) Brake wear particulate matter emissions. Environ Sci Technol 34:4463–4469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Greenstein D, Tiefenthaler L, Bay S (2004) Toxicity of parking lot runoff after application of simulated rainfall. Arch. Environ. Contam Toxicol 47:199–206Google Scholar
  25. Grieshop AP, Lipsky EM, Pekney NJ, Takahama S, Robinson AL (2006) Fine particle emission factors from vehicles in a highway tunnel: effects of fleet composition and season. Atmos Environ 40:287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gunawardana C, Goonetilleke A, Egodawatta P, Dawes L, Kokot S (2012) Source characterisation of road dust based on chemical and mineralogical composition. Chemosphere 87:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gustafsson M, Blomqvist A, Gudmundsson A, Dahl A, Jonsson P, Swietlicki E (2009) Factors influencing PM10 emissions from road pavement wear. Atmos Environ 49:226–240Google Scholar
  28. Han L, Zhuang G, Cheng S, Wang Y, Li J (2007) Characteristics of re-suspended road dust and its impact on the atmospheric environment in Beijing. Atmos Environ 41:7485–7499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hjortenkrans DST, Bergbäck BG, Häggerud AV (2007) Metal emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005. Environ Sci Technol 41:5224–5230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hussein T, Johansson C, Karlsson H, Hansson HC (2008) Factors affecting nontailpipe aerosol particle emissions from paved roads: on-road measurements in Stockholm, Sweden. Atmos Environ 42:688–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Iijima A, Sato K, Yano K, Tago H, Kato M, Kimura H, Furuta N (2007) Particle size and composition distribution analysis of automotive brake abrasion dusts for the evaluation of antimony sources of airborne particulate matter. Atmos Environ 41:4908–4919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johansson C, Norman M, Burman L (2009) Road traffic emission factors for heavy metals. Atmos Environ 43:4681–4688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kadi MW (2009) Soil pollution hazardous to environment: a case study on the chemical composition and correlation to automobile traffic of the roadside soil of Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. J Hazard Mater 168:1280–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Keuken M, van der Gon HD, van der Valk K (2010) Non-exhaust emissions of PM and the efficiency of emission reduction by road sweeping and washing in the Netherlands. Sci Total Environ 408(20):4591--4599Google Scholar
  35. Kumar P, Pirjola L, Ketzel M, Harrison RM (2013) Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources e a review. Atmos Environ 67:252–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lin CC, Chen SJ, Huang KL, Hwang WI, Chang-Chien GP, Lin WY (2005) Characteristics of metals in nano/ultrafine/fine/coarse particles collected beside a heavily trafficked road. Environ Sci Technol 39:8113–8122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lough GC, Schauer JJ, Park JS, Shafer MM, DeMinter JT, Weinstein JP (2005) Roadways. Environ Sci Technol 39:826–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lundy L, Ellis JB, Revitt DM (2012) Risk prioritisation of stormwater pollutant sources. Water Res 46:6589–6600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mancilla Y, Mendoza A (2012) A tunnel study to characterize PM2.5 emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles in Monterrey, Mexico. Atmos Environ 59:449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mathissen M, Scheer V, Vogt R, Benter T (2011) Investigation on the potential generation of ultrafine particles from the tire-road interface. Atmos Environ 45:6172–6179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Milani M, Pucillo FP, Ballerini M, Camatani M, Gualtieri M, Martino S (2004) First evidence of Tyre debris characterization at the nanoscale by focused ion beam. Mater Charact 52:283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ntziachristos L, Ning Z, Geller MD, Sheesley RJ, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C (2007) Fine, ultrafine and nanoparticle trace element compositions near a major freeway with a high heavy-duty diesel fraction. Atmos Environ 41:5864–5866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Omstedt G, Bringfelt B, Johansson C (2005) A model for vehicle-induced nontailpipe emissions of particles along Swedish roads. Atmos Environ 39:6088–6097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pant P, Harrison RM (2013) Estimation of the contribution of road traffic emissions to particulate matter concentrations from field measurements: a review. Atmos Environ 77:78–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Peltier RE, Cromar KR, Ma Y, Fan ZH, Lippmann M (2011) Spatial and seasonal distribution of aerosol chemical components in New York City: (2) road dust and other tracers of traffic-generated air pollution. J Exp Sci Env Epid 21:484–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Perez L, Medina-Ramón M, Künzli N, Alastuey A, Pey J, Perez N, Garcia R, Tobias A, Querol X, Sunyer J (2009) Size fractionated particulate matter, vehicle traffic, and case-specific daily mortality in Barcelona (Spain). Environ Sci Technol 43:4707–4714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Perez N, Pey J, Cusack M, Reche C, Querol X, Alastuey A, Viana M (2010) Variability of particle number, black carbon and PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 levels and speciation: influence of road traffic emissions on urban air quality. Aerosol Sci Technol 44:487–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pey J, Querol X, Alastuey A (2010) Discriminating the regional and urban contributions in the north-western Mediterranean: PM levels and composition. Atmos Environ 44:1587–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pulles T, van der Gon HD, Appelman W, Verheul M (2012) Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles. Atmos Environ 61:641–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Querol X, Alastuey A, Ruiz CR, Artiñano B, Hansson HC, Harrison RM, Buringh E, ten Brink HM, Lutz M, Bruckmann P (2004) Speciation and origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in selected European cities. Atmos Environ 38:6547–6555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Revitt DM, Lundy L, Coulon F, Fairleyet M (2014) The sources, impact and management of car park runoff pollution: a review. J Environ Manag 146:552–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rexeis M, Hausberger S (2009) Tend of vehicle emission levels until 2020-prognosis based on current vehicle measurements and future emission legislation. Atmos Environ 43:4689–4698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rose D, Wehner B, Ketzel M, Engler C, Voigtlander J, Tuch T, Wiedensohler A (2006) Atmospheric number size distributions of soot particles and estimation of emission factors. Atmos Chem Phys 6:1021–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Roy M, Mcdonald LM (2015) Metal uptake in plants and health risk assessments in metal-contaminated smelter soils. Land Degrad Dev 26:785–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sanders PG, Xu N, Dalka TM, Maricq MM (2003) Airborne brake wear debris: size distributions, composition, and a comparison of dynamometer and vehicle tests. Environ Sci Technol 37:4060–4069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sansalone JJ, Buchberger SG (1997) Partitioning and first flush of metals in urban roadway storm water. J Environ Eng 123:134–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schwarze PE, Øvrevik J, Hetland RB, Becher R, Cassee FR, Låg M, Løvik M, Dybing E, Refsnes M (2007) Importance of size and composition of particles for effects on cells in vitro. Inhal Toxicol 19:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shorshani MF, André M, Bonhomme C, Signeur C (2015) Modelling chain for the effect of road traffic on air and water quality: techniques, current status and future prospects. Environ Model Softw 64:102–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Soonthornnonda P, Christensen ER, Liu Y, Li J (2008) A washoff model for stormwater pollutants. Sci Total Environ 402:248–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sorme L (2003) Urban Heavy Metals Stocks and Flows (PhD thesis). Linkoping University, Linkoping, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  61. Sysalova J, Sykorova I, Havelcova M, Szakova J, Trejtnarova H, Kotlik B (2012) Toxicologically important trace elements and organic compounds investigated in size-fractionated urban particulate matter collected near the Prague highway. Sci Total Environ 437:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tavares AO, Pato RL, Magalhães MC (2012) Spatial and temporal land use change and occupation over the last half century in a peri-urban area. Appl Geogr 34:432–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Thorpe AJ, Harrison RM, Boulter PG, McCrae IS (2007) Estimation of particle resuspension source strength on a major London Road. Atmos Environ 41:8007--8020Google Scholar
  64. Thorpe A, Harrison RM (2008) Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic: a review. Sci Total Environ 400:270–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Trujillo-González JM, Torres-Mora MA, Keesstra S, Brevik EC, Jiménez-Ballesta R (2016) Heavy metal accumulation related to population density in road dust samples taken from urban sites under different land uses. Sci Total Environ 553:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Varrica D, Bardelli F, Dongarra G, Tamburro E (2012) Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings and brake pad wear residues. Atmos Environ 64:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. von Uexküll O, Skerfving S, Doyle R, Braungart M (2005) Antimony in brake pads—a carcinogenic component? J Clean Prod 13:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wei B, Yang L (2010) A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchem J 94:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • António J. D. Ferreira
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daniel Soares
    • 1
  • Luís M. V. Serrano
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rory P. D. Walsh
    • 4
  • Celia Dias-Ferreira
    • 1
  • Carla S. S. Ferreira
    • 1
  1. 1.CERNAS, Coimbra Polytechnic Agriculture SchoolPolytechnic Institute of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of LeiriaLeiriaPortugal
  3. 3.ADAI, LAETA Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  4. 4.Department of GeographySwansea UniversitySwanseaUK

Personalised recommendations