Changes in the activity and abundance of the soil microbial community in response to the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP)
- First Online:
- 354 Downloads
The application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soil can result in increased gaseous emissions, such as NH3, N2O, CO2, and CH4, as well as nitrate leaching, contributing to climate warming and ground and surface water pollution, particularly in regions with hot climates, where high temperatures and high soil nitrification rates often occur. The use of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) has been shown to effectively decrease nitrogen (N) losses from the soil-plant system.
Materials and methods
Non-disruptive laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to assess the extent to which temperature (20 and 30 °C) and nutrient source (mineral and organic fertilizers) influence the rate of carbon (C)- and N-related microbial processes in soil in response to the NI 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP). Furthermore, short-term changes in the ability of microbes to degrade C substrates were evaluated in disruptive soil microcosms using microbial community-level physiological profiling and the abundance of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene as a measure of total bacterial population size.
Results and discussion
DMPP reduced net nitrification after 2 and 4 weeks of incubation at 30 and 20 °C by an average of 78.3 and 84.5 %, respectively, and with similar dynamics for mineral or organic fertilization. The addition of labile organic matter with cattle effluent led to a rapid increase in C mineralization that was significantly reduced by DMPP at both temperatures, whereas no changes could be detected after the addition of mineral fertilizer. The culturable heterotrophic microorganisms showed metabolic diversification in the oxidation of C sources, with organic fertilizer playing a major role in the substrate utilization patterns during the first week of incubation and the DMPP effects prevailing from day 14 until day 28. Furthermore, the copy number of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was reduced by the application of DMPP and organic fertilizer after 28 days.
Our results show the marked efficiency of DMPP as an NI at elevated temperatures of incubation and when associated with both mineral and organic fertilization, providing support for its use as a tool to mitigate N losses in Mediterranean ecosystems. However, we also observed impaired C respiration rates and bacterial abundances, as well as shifts in community-level physiological profiles in soil, possibly indicating a short-term effect of DMPP and organic fertilizers on non-target C-related processes and microorganisms.
Keywords3,4-Dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP) Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) Nitrification Nitrification inhibitor N cycle Soil microbial ecology
- Benedetti A, Alianiello F, Dell’Abate MT (1994) A modified Stanford and Smith method for the study of the mineralization of nitrogen from organic materials. In: Neeteson JJ, Hassink J (eds) Nitrogen mineralization in agricultural soils. AB-DLO Thema’s, Haren, pp 127–32Google Scholar
- Dell’Abate MT, Benedetti A, Trinchera A, Galluzzo D (2003) Nitrogen and carbon mineralisation of leather meal in soil as affected by particle size of fertiliser and microbiological activity of soil. Biol Fertil Soils 37:124–9Google Scholar
- Du Plessis KR, Botha A, Joubert L, Bester R, Conradie WJ, Wolfaardt GM (2005) Response of the microbial community to copper oxychloride in acidic sandy loam soil. J Appl Microbiol 98:901–909Google Scholar
- Garland JL, Mills AL (1991) Classification and characterization of heterotrophic microbial communities on the basis of patterns of community-level sole-carbon-source utilization. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:2351–9Google Scholar
- Hatch D, Trindade H, Cardenas L, Carneiro J, Hawkins J, Scholefield D, Chadwick D (2005) Laboratory study of the effects of two nitrification inhibitors on greenhouse gas emissions from slurry-treated arable soil: impact of diurnal temperature cycle. Biol Fertil Soils 41:225–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Insam H, Goberna M (2004) Use of Biolog for the Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) of environmental samples. Mol Microb Ecol Man Second Ed 4(01):853–60Google Scholar
- Kamshake LJ, Hannah SA, Comen JM (1967) Automated analysis for nitrate by hydrazine reduction. Water Resour 1:205–16Google Scholar
- Muyzer G, De Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:695–700Google Scholar
- Smalla K, Wachtendorf U, Heuer H, Liu WT, Forney L (1998) Analysis of BIOLOG GN substrate utilization patterns by microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1220–5Google Scholar
- Tindaon F, Benckiser G, Ottow JCG (2012) Evaluation of ecological doses of the nitrification inhibitors 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 4-chloromethylpyrazole (ClMP) in comparison to dicyandiamide (DCD) in their effects on dehydrogenase and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase activity in soils. Biol Fertil Soils 48:643–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wall L, Gehrke CW, Neuner JE, Lathey RD, Rexnord PR (1975) Cereal protein nitrogen: evolution and comparison of four different methods. Assoc Off Anal Chem 58:811–7Google Scholar
- Weiske A, Benckiser G, Herbert T, Ottow J (2001) Influence of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) in comparison to dicyandiamide (DCD) on nitrous oxide emissions, carbon dioxide fluxes and methane oxidation during 3 years of repeated application in field experiments. Biol Fertil Soils 34:109–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2006) A framework for international classification, correlation and communications. World Soil Resources Reports 103Google Scholar