Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 16, Issue 9, pp 2223–2233 | Cite as

Early detection of the effects of compaction in forested soils: evidence from selective extraction techniques

  • Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz
  • Guilhem Bourrié
  • Fabienne Trolard
  • Jacques Ranger
  • Sadaf Gul
  • Nabeel Khan Niazi
Soils, Sec 2 • Global Change, Environ Risk Assess, Sustainable Land Use • Research Article

Abstract

Purpose

Soil compaction resulting from mechanisation of forest operations reduces air permeability and hydraulic conductivity of soil and can result in the development of hydromorphic and/or anoxic conditions. These hydromorphic conditions can affect physico-chemical properties of the soils. However, early detection of these effects on mineralogical portion of soils is methodologically difficult.

Materials and methods

To analyse the effects of soil compaction on iron minerals in loamy Luvisol, three compacted and three non-compacted soil profiles up to the depth of 50 cm were collected from an artificially deforested and compacted soils after 2 years of treatment. Soil was compacted with the help of 25 Mg wheeler’s load to increase the dry bulk density of soil from 1.21 ± 0.05 to 1.45 ± 0.1 g cm−3. Soil samples were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and were treated by citrate bicarbonate (CB) and dithionite citrate bicarbonate (DCB) under controlled conditions. Major and minor elements (Fe, Al, Mg, Si and Mn) were analysed by ICP-AES in the CB and DCB extracts.

Results and discussion

It was found that X-ray diffraction is not an enough sensitive method to detect the quick mineralogical changes due to soil compaction. Results obtained from CB-DCB extractions showed that soil compaction resulted in larger CB and smaller DCB extractable elements as compared to non-compacted soil. Labile Fe was found 30 % of total Fe oxides in compacted soil against 10–14 % in non-compacted soils. Compaction thus resulted in Fe transfer from non-labile to labile oxides (s.l.). Results showed that soil compaction leads to the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. The effects of hydromorphic conditions due to soil compaction were observed up to the depth of 35 cm in forest soil profile. Furthermore, a close association of Al with Fe oxides was observed in the soil samples, while Mn and Si were mainly released from other sources, Mg showing an intermediate behaviour.

Conclusions

Hydromorphic conditions owing to soil compaction affect the mobility and crystallisation process of iron mineral. CB-DCB selective extraction technique, in contrast to XRD technique, can be effectively used to examine the possible effects of soil compaction on iron minerals.

Keywords

Forestry machinery Iron minerals Redox conditions Selective extractions Soil disturbances Soil compaction 

References

  1. ADEME (1995) Les micro-polluants métalliques dans les boues résiduaires des stations d’épuration urbaines. A reportGoogle Scholar
  2. Batey T (2009) Soil compaction and soil management—a review. Soil Use Manage 25:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borggaard OK (1988) Phase identification by selective dissolution techniques: In Stuki JW et al. (eds) Iron in soils and clay minerals. D. Reibel Publishing Compagny, pp 83–98Google Scholar
  4. Borggaard OK (1990) Kinetics and mechanisms of soil iron oxide dissolution in EDTA, oxalate and dithionite. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Clay conference, Strasbourg, Farmer VC, Tardy Y (eds) Science Géologique Mémoire 85:139–148Google Scholar
  5. Bourrié G, Trolard F, Jaffrezic J, Maître V, Abdelmoula M (1999) Iron control by equilibria between hydroxy-green rusts and solutions in hydromorphic soils. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 63:3417–3427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradley W (1945) Molecular Associations between Montmorillonite and Some Polyfunctional Organic Liquids. J Am Chem Soc 67:975–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cambi M, Certini G, Neri F, Marchi E (2015) The impacts of heavy traffic on forest soils: a review. Forest Ecol Manag 338:124–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cornell RM, Schindler PW (1987) Photochemical dissolution of goethite in acid/oxalate solution. Clay Clay Miner 5:347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deb B (1950) The estimation of free iron oxides in soils and clays and their removal. Eur J Soil Sci 1:212–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Endredy AS (1963) Estimation of free iron oxides in soils and clays by a photolytic method. Clay Miner Bull 9:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Doyle M, Otte M (1997) Organism-induced accumulation of iron, zinc and arsenic in wetland soils. Environ Pollut 96:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eggleton R (1988) The application of micro-beam methods to iron minerals in soils. NATO ASI Ser Ser C 217:165–201Google Scholar
  13. Fonseca EC, Martin H (1986) The selective extraction of Pb and Zn in selected mineral and soil samples. Application in geochemical exploration (Portugal). J Geochem Explor 26:231–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greacen E, Sands R (1980) Compaction of forest soils. A review. Aust J Soil Res 18:163–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamza M, Anderson W (2003) Responses of soil properties and grain yields to deep ripping and gypsum application in a compacted loamy sand soil contrasted with a sandy clay loam soil in Western Australia. Aust J Agr Res 54:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hamza M, Anderson W (2005) Soil compaction in cropping systems A review of the nature, causes and possible solutions. Soil Till Res 82:121–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hazemann JL (1991) Etude cristallochimique par diffraction X et par spectrometric EXAFS de la solution solide α-FeOOH-α-AlOOH. Ph.D. thesis Univ. StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  18. Herbauts J, El Bayad J, Gruber W (1996) Influence of logging traffic on the hydromorphic degradation of acid forest soils developed on loessic loam in middle Belgium. Forest Ecol Manag 87:193–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holmgren G (1967) A rapid citrate-dithionite extractable iron procedure. Soil Sci Soc Am J 31:210–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Horn R, Vossbrink J, Peth S, Becker S (2007) Impact of modern forest vehicles on soil physical properties. For Ecol Manag 248:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Horn R, Doma H, Sowiska-Jurkiewicz A, Van Ouwerkerk C (1995) Soil compaction processes and their effects on the structure of arable soils and the environment. Soil Till Res 35:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jeanroy E, Rajot J, Pillon P, Herbillon A (1991) Differential dissolution of hematite and goethite in dithionite and its implication on soil yellowing. Geoderma 50:79–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lanson B, Bouchet A (1995) Identification des minéraux argileux par diffraction des rayons X: Apport du traitement numérique. In., Elf aquitaine productionGoogle Scholar
  24. Mehra O, Jackson M (1960) Fe oxide removal from soil and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium carbonate. Clay Clay Miner 7:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mitchell B, Smith B, De Endredy A (1971) The effect of buffered sodium dithionite solution and ultrasonic agitation on soil clays. Israel J Chem 9:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nawaz MF, Bourrié G, Gul S (2014a) Factors affecting redox reactions in hydromorphic soils. A review. Pak J Agri Sci 51:515–521Google Scholar
  27. Nawaz MF, Bourrié G, Gul S, Trolard F, Mouret JC, Tanvir MA (2014b) Effects of post harvest management practices on the stability of iron minerals in rice culture. Pak J Agri Sci 51:861–866Google Scholar
  28. Nawaz MF, Bourrié G, Trolard F (2013) Soil compaction impact and modelling. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 33:291–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Neaman A, Waller B, Mouèlé F, Trolard F, Bourrié G (2004) Improved methods for selective dissolution of manganese oxides from soils and rocks. Eur J Soil Sci 55:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Parkhust D, Appelo C (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (Version 2)–A computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99:31Google Scholar
  31. Pehkonen S, Erel Y, Hoffmann M (1992) Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Measurement of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Atmospheric Water. Environ Sci Technol 26:1731–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ponnamperuma F (1985) Chemical kinetics of wetland rice soils relative to soil fertility. In: Wetland Soils, characterization, Classification and Utilization. Agribookstore, Philippine, pp 71Google Scholar
  33. Schäffer J, Buberl H, Wilpert KV (2012) Deformation damage in forest topsoils-An assessment based on Level-1 soil monitoring data from Baden Württemberg (SW Germany). J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 175:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schaller T, Christoph Moor H, Wehrli B (1997) Sedimentary profiles of Fe, Mn, V, Cr, As and Mo as indicators of benthic redox conditions in Baldeggersee. Aquat Sci-Res Across Boundaries 59:345–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schnurr-Putz S, Guggenberger G, Kusel K (2006) Compaction of forest soil by logging machinery favours occurrence of prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 58:503–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schwertmann U (1959) Die fraktionierte Extraktion der freien Eisenoxyde in Boden, ihre mineralogischen Formen und ihre Entstehungsweisen. Z. Planzenernährung Düngung Bodenkunde 108:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sheikh GS, Shafique M, Sabir MS (1993) Soil strength as affected by different fertilizers under different soil compaction and moisture conditions. Pak J Agric Sci 30:228–230Google Scholar
  38. Sial JK, Sheikh GS, Afzal M (1987) Emergence of wheat seedlings as affected by soil compaction. Pak J Agric Sci 24:225–230Google Scholar
  39. Singh B, Gilkes RJ (1992) Properties and distribution of iron oxides and their association with minor elements in the soils of south-western Australia. J Soil Sci 43:77–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sondag F (1981) Selective extraction procedures applied to geochemical prospecting in an area contamined by old mine workings. J Geochem Explor 15:645–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sowa J, Kulak D (2008) Probability of Occurrence of Soil Disturbances during Timber Harvesting. Croat J For Eng 29:29–39Google Scholar
  42. Stumm W, Sulzberger B (1992) The cycling of iron in natural environments: considerations based on laboratory studies of heterogeneous redox processes. Geochem Cosmochem Ac 56:3233–3257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tamm O (1922) Eine Methode zur Bestimmung der organischen Komponenten des Gelkcomplexes in Boden. Medd. Statens Skogsförsöksanstalt 19:385–404Google Scholar
  44. Taylor R, Schwertmann U (1978) The influence of aluminum on iron oxides. Part I. The influence of A1 on Fe oxide formation from the Fe (II) system. Clay Clay Miner 26:373–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Trolard F, Abdelmoula M, Bourrié G, Humbert B, Génin JMR (1996) Mise en évidence d’un constituant de type “rouilles vertes” dans les sols hydromorphes. Proposition de l’existence d’un nouveau minéral: la fougérite”. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences - Série IIa: Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes 323:1015–1022Google Scholar
  46. Trolard F, Bourrie G, Jeanroy E, Herbillon A, Martin H (1995) Trace metals in natural iron oxides from laterites: a study using selective kinetic extraction. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:1285–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Trolard F, Bourrié G (2008) Geochemistry of green rust and fougerite: reevaluation of Fe cycle in soils. Adv Agron 99:227–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vivaldi M, Rodríguez-Gallego M (1961) Some problems in the identification of clay minerals in mixtures by X-ray diffraction. I. Chlorite-kaolinite mixtures. Clay Miner 26:288–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wolska E (1997) The substitution of Fe, Al and OH in synthetic and natural iron oxides and hydroxides. Adv Geoecol 30:271–282Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz
    • 1
  • Guilhem Bourrié
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fabienne Trolard
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jacques Ranger
    • 4
  • Sadaf Gul
    • 5
  • Nabeel Khan Niazi
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Range ManagementUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.INRA, UMR1114 EMMAHAvignonFrance
  3. 3.UAPV, UMR1114 EMMAHAvignonFrance
  4. 4.INRA, UR 113 Biogéochimie des Ecosystèmes ForestiersChampenouxFrance
  5. 5.Department of BotanyUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  6. 6.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  7. 7.Southern Cross GeoScienceSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia

Personalised recommendations