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Determination of the bioavailable fraction of triclosan in biosolid-treated soils using a predictive method and wheat plant bioassays

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Abstract

Purpose

Triclosan (TCS, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) an antimicrobial compound used in a range of household products, is an emerging hydrophobic organic contaminant, that may be incorporated into soil through the application of biosolids. The present study assessed the bioavailable fraction of TCS in a soil-biosolid system using wheat (Triticum aestivum) plant assays and a predictive extraction method using a solution of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to determine if it was a reliable surrogate for this bioassay.

Materials and methods

Three soils were obtained from the central region of Chile (Cuesta Vieja, Polpaico, and Taqueral). Biosolid was obtained from a regional wastewater treatment plant. The soils were amended with biosolids at different rates (30, 60, 90, and 200 Mg ha-1). The TCS concentration was determined in biosolids, soil, and plant samples via gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results and discussion

The total TCS concentration in the biosolids was 5.45 mg kg-1. The results of the TCS extraction from the wheat plants (roots and shoots) indicated that TCS was primarily found in the roots. TCS uptake by the plant varied based on soil properties. The predictive capability of the HPCD extraction was assessed using a simple linear correlation test for TCS concentration in wheat plants.

Conclusions

The study yielded a linear relationship, which demonstrated the validity of the chemical method as a biosimulation technique.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank FONDECYT (Grants 1110115, 1100085) for financial support.

Author information

Correspondence to Inés Ahumada.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Jianming Xu

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Corrotea, Y., Richter, P., Brown, S. et al. Determination of the bioavailable fraction of triclosan in biosolid-treated soils using a predictive method and wheat plant bioassays. J Soils Sediments 16, 1538–1546 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-015-1348-3

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Keywords

  • Bioavailability
  • Biosolids soil
  • Cyclodextrin
  • Triclosan