Origin and spatial distribution of metals in urban soils
- 481 Downloads
This study assessed soils from 36 parks and gardens (Vigo City, NW of Spain) where there are different degrees of traffic intensity and activity.
Materials and methods
The soils were characterised, and the content of Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr and Zn was analysed. Further assessment determined the geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor and the contamination degree by metals with adverse effects on human health and environmental quality.
Results and discussion
The results reveal the existence of a moderate degree of contamination by Ba, Pb and Cu, which contribute the most to soil contamination due to the influence of industrial areas and main transport routes. Correlation and cluster analyses suggest that the metals included in the study have three possible origins: “natural” (Na and Si), “mixed” (two groups with different source intensity: Ca and Sr and Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ni) and two possible “urban” sources: traffic (Cu, Pb, Zn) and mixed (Ba).
None of the soils can be classified as strongly contaminated but more than 61 % of the moderate contamination degree determined in the studied soils is explained by the Ba, Cu and Pb contents.
KeywordsEnrichment factor Geoaccumulation Pollution Metals Sources Urban soil
We thank the Xunta de Galicia for funding project EM2013/018. F.A. Vega is hired under a Ramón y Cajal contract at the University of Vigo. A. Rodríguez-Seijo would like to thank the University of Vigo for his pre-doctoral fellowship (P.P. 00VI 131H 64102) and would like to thank the Concello de Vigo (Spain) for their help in collecting samples.
Compliance with ethical standards
This research does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
- Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen-total. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney RS (eds) Method of soil analysis: part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, vol Agronomy monographs no. 9, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 595–624)Google Scholar
- Craul PJ (1992) Urban soil in landscape design. Wiley, New York, 396 p Google Scholar
- Fernández–Espinosa AJ, Ternero-Rodríguez M (2004) Study of traffic pollution by metals in Seville (Spain) by physical and chemical speciation methods. Anal Bioanal Chem 379:684–699Google Scholar
- Instituto Geográfico Nacional de España. (2014). Base Cartográfica Numérica 1:25.000 (BCN25), Base Topográfica Nacional 1:25.000 (BTN25). Cedido por © Instituto Geográfico Nacional de España. https://www.cnig.es/ Accessed 04 April 2014
- Macías F, Calvo de Anta R (2009) Niveles Genéricos de Referencia de Metales Pesados y otros elementos de traza en suelos de Galicia. Xunta de Galicia 2009. Santiago de Compostela, Spain (in Spanish)Google Scholar
- Müller G (1979) Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des Rheins-Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79(24):778–783 (in German) Google Scholar
- Olsen SR, Sommers LE (1982) Phosphorus. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney RS (eds) Method of soil analysis: part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy monographs no. 9, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 403–430Google Scholar
- QGIS Development Team (2014) QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. http://qgis.osgeo.org Accessed 22 January 2014Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, http://www.R-project.org Accessed 21 January 2014
- Slavik R, Julinová M, Labudíková M (2012) Screening of the spatial distribution of risk metals in topsoil from an industrial complex. Ecol Chem Eng S 19:259–272Google Scholar