Fire in mountainous areas can lead to increased variability of their soil organic matter (SOM) due to spatial inhomogeneity and pre-fire fuel distribution. Here, we elucidated if this was the case in our study area and how this affected the reliability of solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy applied for the study of the medium-term impact of fire on SOM
Materials and methods
The study occurred in the Sierra de Aznalcóllar, Southern Spain, which experienced their last intense fire 7 years before sampling. In a first approach (method 1), the corners and the center of a randomly chosen square with a side length of 15 m were sampled and analyzed separately. For comparison, composite samples (method 2) were obtained from three soils. We characterized material from unburnt, burnt, and double burnt regions. Data describing the physical and chemical properties of the soils together with the NMR spectroscopic characterization were analyzed using ANOVA.
Results and discussion
Both sampling methods yielded comparable results with comparable standard errors. No major differences between the fire-affected and unburnt soils were observed with respect to physical and chemical properties and C and N contents, but solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy indicated a small but significant elevation of aromaticity in the soils with fire history.
The analysis showed that sampling with reduced replicates (method 1) can still lead to representative NMR data. The more complex sampling of comparing three composite samples (method 2) did not decrease the standard error. Our results also indicate that in the study area typical properties of the soil and its SOM induced by former burnings will not persist beyond a few decades.
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We acknowledge the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad de España (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) for financial support (Project CGL2009-10557) and providing a travel grant to H. Knicker to visit the Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The latter and here in particular, Dr. Anne Berns is gratefully acknowledged for providing access to the NMR facilities. The first author was financially supported by MINECO/ERDF (BES-2010-42581). Further, Samuel Manzano Moñino and Ignacio Villar Mavellán, from the “Centro de Plan Infoca y Centros de Defensa Forestal (CEDEFO), are greatly acknowledged for providing helpful information about the study area and their assistance during the field work. Juan de Dios Franco Navarro is thanked for his support during the statistical analysis. Garbriel Molina Candau, Serena Tabanera Rodrígrez, and the Company “Explotaciones Agrícolas, el Prado, S. L.” are acknowledged for allowing sampling on their property.
Responsible editor: Zhihong Xu
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López-Martín, M., Velasco-Molina, M. & Knicker, H. Variability of the quality and quantity of organic matter in soil affected by multiple wildfires. J Soils Sediments 16, 360–370 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-015-1223-2
- Medium-term fire effects
- Pyrogenic organic matter
- Sampling reliability
- Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy
- SOM characterization