Ecosystem services provided by soils of urban, industrial, traffic, mining, and military areas (SUITMAs)
- 1.5k Downloads
The sustainable use and management of global soils is one of the greatest challenges for the future. In the urban ecosystem, soils play an essential role with their functions and ecosystem services. However, they are still poorly taken into consideration to enhance the sustainable development of urban ecosystems. This paper proposes a categorization of soils of urbanized areas, i.e., areas strongly affected by human activities, according to their ecosystem services.
Materials and methods
Focus is put first on ecosystem services provided by non-urban soils. Then, the characteristics and number of services provided by soil groups of urbanized areas and their importance are given for each soil group.
Results and discussion
Soils of urbanized areas are here defined as SUITMAs, because they include soils of urban, sensu stricto, industrial, traffic, mining, and military areas. This definition refers to a large number of soil types of strongly anthropized areas. SUITMAs were organized in four soil groups, i.e., (1) pseudo-natural soils, (2) vegetated engineered soils, (3) dumping site soils, and (4) sealed soils. For each soil group, examples for ecosystem services were given, evaluated, and ranked.
This proposal contributes to foster the dialogue between urban spatial planning and soil scientists to improve both soil science in the city and recognition of SUITMAs regarding their role for the sustainable development of urban ecosystems and, in particular, to enhance multifunctional soils in urban areas.
KeywordsSoil functions Technosol Urban environment Urban soil groups
- Charzynski P, Hulisz P, Bednarek R (2013) Technogenic soils of Poland. Polish Society of Soil Science, Torun, ISBN 978-83-934096-1-7, 358 pGoogle Scholar
- de Groot RS, Alkemade R, Braat L, Hein L, Willemen L (2010) Challenges in integrating the concept of ecosystem services and values in landscape planning, management and decision making. International Workshop on Ecosystems Services—solution for problems of a problem that needs solution. Salzau, Germany, May 2008. Ecol Complex 7:260–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- European Union (2012) Guidelines on best practice to limit, mitigate or compensate soil sealing. doi: 10.2779/75498. ISBN 978-92-79-26210-4, 64 p
- European Commission—DG ENV (2010) Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/soil/biodiversity.htm
- Gómez-Baggethun E, Gren Å, Barton DN, Langemeyer J, McPhearson T, O’Farrell P, Andersson E, Hamstead Z, Kremer P (2013) Urban ecosystem services. In: Elmqvist T et al (eds) Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Challenges and global opportunities: a global assessment. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 175–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IUSS Working Group WRB (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006. World soil resources reports no. 103, 2nd edn. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
- McPhearson T (2011) Toward a sustainable New York city: greening through urban forest restoration. In: Slavin MI (ed) Sustainability in America’s cities: creating the green metropolis. Island, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) http://www.maweb.org/en/Index.aspx
- New York City Soil Survey Staff (2005) New York city reconnaissance soil survey. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Staten IslandGoogle Scholar
- Reeve A (2012) A basis for a pragmatic inquiry into the policy considerations related to the increased application of Biophilic Urbanism. 11th Urban Environment Symposium 16–19 September. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KarlsruheGoogle Scholar
- Rockström J, Steffen W, Noone K, Persson Å, Chapin FS, Lambin EF, Lenton TM, Scheffer M, Folke C, Schellnhuber HJ, Nykvist B, de Wit CA, Hughes T, van der Leeuw S, Rodhe H, Sörlin S, Snyder PK, Costanza R, Svedin U, Falkenmark M, Karlberg L, Corell RW, Fabry VJ, Hansen J, Walker B, Liverman D, Richardson K, Crutzen P, Foley JA (2009) A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461:472–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Toland AR, Wessolek G (2010) Soil art: bridging the communication gap. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, 1–6 August, Brisbane, Australia, http://www.iuss.org/19th%20WCSS/Symposium/pdf/2104.pdf
- United Nations (2011) World population prospect. The 2010 revision. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, Volume I, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Wessolek G (2008) Sealing of soils. In: Urban ecology, an international perspective on the interaction between humans and nature. Springer, pp 161–179Google Scholar