Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 872–885 | Cite as

How weed control and fertilisation influence tree physiological processes and growth at early establishment in an exotic F1 hybrid pine plantation of subtropical Australia

  • Paula T. IbellEmail author
  • Zhihong H. Xu
  • Terence J. Blake
  • Carole Wright
  • Timothy J. Blumfield



This study investigated how nitrogen (N) nutrition and key physiological processes varied under changed water and nitrogen competition resulting from different weed control and fertilisation treatments in a 2-year-old F1 hybrid (Pinus elliottii Engelm var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis Barr. ex Golf.) plantation on a grey podzolic soil type, in Southeast Queensland.

Materials and methods

The study integrated a range of measures including growth variables (diameter at ground level (DGL), diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H)), foliar variables (including foliar N concentration, foliar δ13C and δ15N) and physiological variables (including photosynthesis (An), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) (A/gs) and xylem pressure potential (ΨXPP)) to better understand the mechanisms influencing growth under different weed control and fertilisation treatments. Five levels of weed control were applied: standard (routine), luxury, intermediate, mechanical and nil weed control, all with routine fertilisation plus an additional treatment, routine weed control and luxury fertilisation. Relative weed cover was assessed at 0.8, 1.1 and 1.6 years after plantation establishment to monitor the effectiveness of weed control treatments. Soil investigation included soil ammonium (NH4 +-N), nitrate (NO3 -N), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), gravimetric soil moisture content (MC), hot water extractable organic carbon (HWETC), hot water extractable total N (HWETN), total C, total N, stable C isotope composition (δ13C), stable N isotope composition (δ15N), total P and extractable K.

Results and discussion

There were significant relationships between foliar N concentrations and relative weed cover and between tree growth and foliar N concentration or foliar δ15N, but initial site preparation practices also increased soil N transformations in the planting rows reducing the observable effects of weed control on foliar δ15N. A positive relationship between foliar N concentration and foliar δ13C or photosynthesis indicated that increased N availability to trees positively influenced non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis. However, trees with increased foliar N concentrations and photosynthesis were negatively related to xylem pressure potential in the afternoons which enhanced stomatal limitations to photosynthesis and WUEi.


Luxury and intermediate weed control and luxury fertilisation positively influenced growth at early establishment by reducing the competition for water and N resources. This influenced fundamental key physiological processes such as the relationships between foliar N concentration, A n, E, gs and ΨXPP. Results also confirmed that time from cultivation is an important factor influencing the effectiveness of using foliar δ15N as an indicator of soil N transformations.


Establishment silviculture Foliar δ13C and δ15Nitrogen and water competition Tree growth and physiology 



Respect and gratitude go to colleagues in the Centre for Forestry and Horticulture (now known as the Environmental Futures Centre) at Griffith University, for their assistance with field work, guidance and persistence and to Mr. Scott Byrne and Mr. and Mrs. Diocares of Griffith University for their technical assistance. The authors also acknowledge the operating funding and technical support from the Forestry Plantations Queensland viz. Dr. Ken Bubb, Mr. Paul Keay, Dr. Marks Nester, Mr Ian Last, and for the numerous staff who were responsible for the development and maintenance of the experimental site. Paula Ibell was supported by a research scholarship grant through the Australian Research Council and an extension scholarship from the Centre for Forestry and Horticulture Research, Griffith University.

Supplementary material

11368_2014_891_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Table S1 Particle size analysis and pH (mean, SE) in the top 20 cm soil profile from the cultivated planting row of the experimental site in an 18 month-old plantation of the F1 hybrid between Slash pine and Caribbean pine in southeast Queensland, Australia. (DOCX 16 kb)
11368_2014_891_MOESM2_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Table S2 Total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), C isotope composition (δ13C) and N isotope composition (δ15N), C: N ratio, hot water extractable total C (HWETC) and N (HWETN), nitrate N (NO3 --N), ammonium (NH4 +-N), potentially mineralizable N (PMN), exchangeable potassium (K) and gravitational moisture content (means, S.E.) in the 0-20 cm soil profile prior to post-planting weed control and fertilization treatment application on a Grey Podzolic soil type, in an exotic pine plantation. Sampling positions are from the planting row (PR) or the inter-planting row (IPR). (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula T. Ibell
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zhihong H. Xu
    • 3
  • Terence J. Blake
    • 3
    • 4
  • Carole Wright
    • 2
  • Timothy J. Blumfield
    • 3
  1. 1.Griffith School of Environment and Environmental Futures CentreGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia
  2. 2.Agri-Science Queensland, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and ForestryMareebaAustralia
  3. 3.Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical SciencesGriffith UniversityNathanAustralia
  4. 4.Faculty of ForestryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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