Co-remediation of DDT-contaminated soil using white rot fungi and laccase extract from white rot fungi
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2,2-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), one of the most widely used organochlorine pesticides in soil, was banned in the 1970s for agricultural use because of its detrimental impacts on wildlife and harmful effects on human health via the food chain. However, high levels of DDT are frequently detected in agricultural soils in China. Considering this situation, this study investigated the use of white rot fungi and laccase derived from white rot fungi to co-remediate DDT-contaminated soil.
Materials and methods
A culture of white rot fungi was used to inoculate soil samples and also to extract laccase from. Soil was contaminated with four components of DDT (p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD, and p,p′-DDT). Individual DDT components and the sum of the DDT components (p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDD, and p,p′-DDT—collectively referred to as DDTs) were both analyzed by GC at various stages during the incubation period. The efficacy of co-remediating DDT-contaminated soil using white rot fungi and laccase was tested by investigating how degradation varied with varying amounts of white rot fungi, sterilizing soil, temperature, soil pH, concentrations of DDT, and concentration of the heavy metal ion Cd2+.
Results and discussion
“”It was concluded that the reduction of DDTs in soil using white rot fungi and laccase was higher than reduction using only white rot fungi or laccase by nearly 14 and 16 %, respectively. Five milliliters fungi per 15 g soil and 6 U laccase per gram soil were the optimal application rates for remediation, as shown by a reduction in DDTs of 66.82 %. The difference in the reduction of individual DDT components and DDTs between natural and sterilized soils was insignificant. The optimal temperature and pH in the study were 28 °C and 4.5, respectively. In addition, reduction of individual DDT components and DDTs increased with increasing concentrations of DDT and decreased with increasing concentrations of Cd2+.
Compared with the remediation of DDT using only white rot fungi or laccase, the co-remediation of DDT using white rot fungi and laccase degraded DDT in soil more rapidly and efficiently; the highest reduction of DDTs was 66.82 %.
KeywordsCo-remediation DDT Experimental condition Laccase Soil White rot fungi
This project was supported by the Pollution Prevention and Control New Technology Development Projects of the Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau of China (Suihuanyanfa 2010 no. 002) and the Leading Academic Discipline Program of Phase-3 of “Project-211” for South China Agricultural University of China (no. 2009B010100001). We especially thank Dr. Sally Gadsdon for the language revision of this manuscript.
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