Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 981–988 | Cite as

Land use changes induced soil organic carbon variations in agricultural soils of Fuyang County, China

  • Lefeng Qiu
  • Jinxia Zhu
  • Yuanhong Zhu
  • Yang Hong
  • Ke Wang
  • Jinsong Deng



The purpose of this study is to understand spatial and temporal variations of soil organic carbon (SOC) under rapid urbanization and support soil and environmental management.

Materials and methods

SOC data in 1979 and 2006, of 228 and 1,104 soil samples respectively, were collected from surface agricultural lands in Fuyang County, East of China. Land use data were also gathered at the same time.

Results and discussion

The mean SOC was 17.3 (±4.6) g/kg for the 1979 data and 18.5(±5.8) g/kg for 2006. There was a significant difference in SOC between the 2 years according to the t test result. Geostatistical analysis indicated that SOC had a moderate spatial correlation controlled by extrinsic anthropogenic activities. The spatial distribution of SOC, derived from ordinary kriging, matched the distribution of industry and urbanization. Using a six-level SOC classification scheme (<3.5, 3.5–5.8, 5.8–11.6, 11.6–17.4, 17.4–23.2, and >23.2 g/kg) created by Zhejiang Province, approximately 15 % of soil had SOC increase from low to high levels from 1979 to 2006.


The main cause of SOC variation in the study area was land use change from agriculture to industrial or urbanized uses. The increasing SOC trend near most towns may be attributed to use of organic manure, urban wastes, sewage sludge, and chemical fertilizers on agricultural land.


Distribution pattern Geostatistics Land use Urbanization 



This study was financially supported by public welfare project from Science Technology Department of Zhejiang Province (#2010C3208).


  1. Agricultural Bureau of Fuyang County (1992) Agriculture in Fuyang County. Agricultural Bureau of Fuyang County Press, Fuyang, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. Beyer L, Frund R, Mueller K (1997) Short-term effects of a secondary paper mill sludge application on soil properties in a Psammentic Haplumbrept under cultivation. Sci Total Environ 197(1–3):127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cambardella CA, Moorman TB, Novak JM, Parkin TB, Karlen DL, Turco RF, Konopka AE (1994) Field-scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58(5):1501–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Celik I (2005) Land-use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil Till Res 83(2):270–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen J (2007) Rapid urbanization in China: a real challenge to soil protection and food security. Catena 69(1):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dai WH, Huang Y (2006) Relation of soil organic matter concentration to climate and altitude in zonal soils of China. Catena 65(1):87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eynard A, Schumacher TE, Lindstrom MJ, Malo DD (2005) Effects of agricultural management systems on soil organic carbon in aggregates of Ustolls and Usterts. Soil Till Res 81(2):253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Foley BJ, Cooperband LR (2002) Paper mill residuals and compost effects on soil carbon and physical properties. J Environ Qual 31(6):2086–2095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garcia C, Hernandez T, Costa F (1992) Mineralization in a calcareous soil of a sewage-sludge composted with different organic residues. Waste Manage Res 10(5):445–452Google Scholar
  10. Goovaerts P (1997) Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford Univ. Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Harradine F, Jenny H (1958) Influence of parent material and climate on texture and nitrogen and carbon contents of Virgin California soils: I. Texture and nitrogen contents of soils. Soil Sci 85(5):235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Janzen HH (2004) Carbon cycling in earth systems—a soil science perspective. Agr Ecosyst Environ 104(3):399–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kong XB, Dao TH, Qin J, Qin HY, Li CZ, Zhang FR (2009) Effects of soil texture and land use interactions on organic carbon in soils in North China cities’ urban fringe. Geoderma 154(1–2):86–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lax A, Diaz E, Castillo V, Albaladejo J (1994) Reclamation of physical and chemical—properties of a salinized soil by organic amendment. Arid Soil Res Rehab 8(1):9–17Google Scholar
  15. Li YX, Chen TB, Luo W, Huang QF, Wu JF (2003) Contents of organic matter and major nutrients and the ecological effect related to land application of sewage sludge in China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 23(11):2464–2474Google Scholar
  16. Liebig MA, Varvel GE, Doran JW, Wienhold BJ (2002) Crop sequence and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil properties in the Western Corn Belt. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66(2):596–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Newman CM, Rotenerg D, Cooperand LR (2005) Paper mill residuals and compost effects on particulate organic matter and related soil functions in a sandy soil. Soil Sci 170(10):788–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pascual JA, Ayuso M, Garcia C, Hernández T (1997) Characterization of urban wastes according to fertility and phytotoxicity parameters. Waste Manage Res 15(1):103–112Google Scholar
  19. Pascual JA, Garcia C, Hernandez T (1999) Comparison of fresh and composted organic waste in their efficacy for the improvement of arid soil quality. Bioresource Technol 68(3):255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pedra F, Polo A, Ribeiro A, Domingues H (2007) Effects of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge on mineralization of soil organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem 39(6):1375–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Polyakov V, Lal R (2004) Modeling soil organic matter dynamics as affected by soil water erosion. Environ Int 30(4):547–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Smith P, Fang CM, Dawson JJC, Moncrieff JB (2008) Impact of global warming on soil organic carbon. Adv Agron 97:1–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Solomon D, Lehmann J, Zech W (2000) Land use effects on soil organic matter properties of chromic luvisols in semi-arid northern Tanzania: carbon, nitrogen, lignin and carbohydrates. Agr Ecosyst Environ 78(3):203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Statistical Bureau of Fuyang County (2007) Fuyang Statistics Yearbook. Statistical Bureau of Fuyang County Press, Fuyang, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  25. Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of the degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37(1):29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yu ZY (1994) Zhejiang soils. Zhejiang Technology Press, HangzhouGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang X, Lin F, Wong M, Feng X, Wang K (2009) Identification of soil heavy metal sources from anthropogenic activities and pollution assessment of Fuyang County, China. Environ Monit Assess 154(1):439–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhong TY, Huang XJ, Zhang XY, Wang K (2011) Temporal and spatial variability of agricultural land loss in relation to policy and accessibility in a low hilly region of southeast China. Land Use Policy 28(4):762–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Rural DevelopmentZhejiang Academy of Agricultural SciencesHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Institute of Economic and Social DevelopmentZhejiang University of Finance and EconomicsHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Institute of Remote Sensing and Information System ApplicationZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Department of Crop and Soil SciencesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  5. 5.School of Civil Engineering and Environmental SciencesUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA

Personalised recommendations