Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 586–602 | Cite as

A comparison of measured catchment sediment yields with measured and predicted hillslope erosion rates in Europe

  • Matthias VanmaerckeEmail author
  • Willem Maetens
  • Jean Poesen
  • Benediktas Jankauskas
  • Genovaite Jankauskiene
  • Gert Verstraeten
  • Joris de Vente



This study aims to understand better the relationship between measured soil loss rates due to sheet and rill erosion (SL), predicted SL rates and measured catchment sediment yields (SY) in Europe.

Materials and methods

Analyses were based on a recently established database of measured annual SY for 1794 catchments, a database of 777 annual SL rates measured on runoff plots and two recent maps of predicted sheet and rill erosion rates in Europe (i.e. one based on empirical extrapolations of measured SL data and one based on the PESERA model). To identify regional trends, all data were grouped into eight climatic zones.

Results and discussion

Measured SL rates are generally a factor of five to ten times larger than predicted SL rates and are strongly biased towards erosion-prone situations in terms of land use. Also measured SY are generally higher than predicted SL rates, especially in the Mediterranean and Alpine regions where SY is generally ten times higher than predicted SL rates. This illustrates the importance of other erosion processes contributing to SY. Regional differences in the importance of these processes and their implications are discussed.


This study confirms previous findings indicating the relatively low sheet and rill erosion rates compared to SY in the Mediterranean region and illustrates the importance of other erosion processes contributing to SY in most regions of Europe. This indicates that hillslope erosion rates cannot be used directly to estimate SY, and consequently soil conservation programmes should focus more on the dominant erosion processes in each catchment.


Plot soil loss Scale dependency Sediment sources Sheet and rill erosion Soil erosion model 



The research described in this paper was conducted within the framework of the EC-DG RTD-6th Framework Research Programme (sub-priority–Research on Desertification—project DESIRE (037046): Desertification Mitigation and Remediation of land—a global approach for local solutions. M. Vanmaercke received grant-aided support from the Research Foundation—Flanders (FWO), Belgium. The authors wish to thank the many researchers and institutes who provided data, publications or additional information on the sediment yield and soil loss rate measurements discussed in this study. Furthermore, this manuscript benefited a lot from the constructive comments of three anonymous reviewers.


  1. Auerswald K, Fiener P, Dikau D (2009) Rates of sheet and rill erosion in Germany—a meta-analysis. Geomorphology 111:182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakker MM, Govers G, van Doorn A, Quetier F, Chouvardas D, Rounsevell M (2008) The response of soil erosion and sediment export to land-use change in four areas of Europe: the importance of landscape pattern. Geomorphology 98:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bathurst JC, Moretti G, El-Hames A, Moaven-Hashemi A, Burton A (2005) Scenario modelling of basin-scale, shallow landslide sediment yield, Valsassina, Italian Southern Alps. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 5:189–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bathurst JC, Moretti G, El-Hames A, Beguería S, García-Ruiz JM (2007) Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11:569–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beguería S, López-Moreno JI, Lorente A, Seeger M, García-Ruiz JM (2003) Assessing the effects of climate oscillations and land-use changes on streamflow in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Ambio 32:283–286Google Scholar
  6. Birkinshaw SJ, Bathurst JC (2006) Model study of the relationship between sediment yield and river basin area. Earth Surf Process Landforms 31:750–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boardman J (1998) An average soil erosion rate for Europe: myth or reality? J Soil Water Conservat 53:46–50Google Scholar
  8. Bogen J (2004) Erosion and sediment yield in the Atna river. Hydrobiologia 521:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boix-Fayos C, Martínez-Mena M, Calvo-Cases A, Castillo V, Albaladejo J (2005) Concise review of interrill erosion studies in SE Spain (Alicante and Murcia): erosion rates and progress of knowledge from the 1980s. Land Degrad Dev 16:517–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boix-Fayos C, Barberá GG, López-Bermúdez F, Castillo VM (2007) Effects of check-dams, reforestation and land-use changes on river channel morphology: case study of the Rogativa catchment (Murcia, Spain). Geomorphology 91:103–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boix-Fayos C, de Vente J, Martínez-Mena M, Barberá GG, Castillo V (2008) The impact of land use change and check-dams on catchment sediment yield. Hydrol Process 22:4922–4935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caine N (1980) The rainfall intensity—duration control of shallow landslides and debris flows. Geogr Ann 62A:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cammeraat E (2004) Scale dependent thresholds in hydrological and erosion response of a semi-arid catchment in southeast Spain. Agr Ecosyst Environ 104:317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Castillo VM, Mosch WM, Conesa García C, Barberá GG, Navarro Cano JA, Lopez-Bermúdez F (2007) Effectiveness and geomorphological impacts of check dams for soil erosion control in a semiarid Mediterranean catchment: El Carcavo (Murcia, Spain). Catena 70:416–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cerdan O, Poesen J, Govers G, Saby N, Le Bissonnais Y, Gobin A, Vacca A, Quinton JN, Auerswald K, Klik A, Kwaad FJPM, Roxo MJ (2006) Sheet and rill erosion. In: Boardman J, Poesen J (eds) Soil erosion in Europe. Wiley, Chichester, pp 501–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cerdan O, Govers G, Le Bissonnais Y, Van Oost K, Poesen J, Saby N, Gobin A, Vacca A, Quinton J, Auerswald K, Klik A, Kwaad F, Raclot D, Ionita I, Rejman J, Rousseva S, Muxart T, Roxo M, Dostal T (2010) Rates and spatial variations of soil erosion in Europe: a study based on erosion plot data. Geomorphology 122:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Church M, Slaymaker O (1989) Disequilibrium of Holocene sediment yield in glaciated British Columbia. Nature 337:452–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clapp E, Bierman P, Shick A, Lekach J, Enzel Y, Caffee M (2000) Sediment yield exceeds sediment production in arid region drainage basins. Geology 28:995–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Vente J, Poesen J (2005) Predicting soil erosion and sediment yield at the basin scale: scale issues and semi-quantitative models. Earth Sci Rev 71:95–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Vente J, Poesen J, Bazzoffi P, Van Rompaey A, Verstraeten G (2006) Predicting catchment sediment yield in Mediterranean environments: the importance of sediment sources and connectivity in Italian drainage basins. Earth Surf Process Landforms 31:1017–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Vente J, Poesen J, Arabkhedri M, Verstraeten G (2007) The sediment delivery problem revisited. Progr Phys Geogr 31:155–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de Vente J, Poesen J, Verstraeten G, Van Rompaey A, Govers G (2008) Spatially distributed modelling of soil erosion and sediment yield at regional scales in Spain. Global Planet Change 60:393–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dearing JA, Jones RT (2003) Coupling temporal and spatial dimensions of global sediment flux through lake and marine sediment records. Global Planet Change 39:147–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dedkov A (2004) The relationship between sediment yield and drainage basin area. In: Golosov V, Belyaev V, Walling D (eds) Sediment transfer through the fluvial system, publ. 288. IAHS, Wallingford, pp 197–204Google Scholar
  25. Dedkov AP, Moszherin VI (1992) Erosion and sediment yield in mountain regions of the world. In: Walling D, Davies R, Hasholt B (eds) Erosion, debris flow and environment in mountain regions, publ. 209. IAHS, Wallingford, pp 29–36Google Scholar
  26. Delmas M, Cerdan O, Mouchel J-M, Garcin M (2009) A method for developing a large-scale sediment yield index for European river basins. J Soils Sediments 9:613–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dietrich WE, Bellugi DG, Sklar LS, Stock JD, Heimsath AM, Roering JJ (2003) Geomorphic transport laws for predicting landscape form and dynamics. AGU Geophys Monogr 135:1–30Google Scholar
  28. Favis-Mortlock D (1998) Validation of field-scale soil erosion models using common datasets. In: Boardman J, Favis-Mortlock D (eds) Modelling soil erosion by water. NATO-ASI Series I-55, Springer, Berlin, pp. 89-127Google Scholar
  29. García-Ruiz JM, Lana-Renault N, Beguería S, Lasanta T, Regüés D, Nadal-Romero E, Serrano-Muela P, López-Moreno JI, Alvera B, Martí-Bono C, Alatorre LC (2010) From plot to regional scales: interactions of slope and catchment hydrological and geomorphic processes in the Spanish Pyrenees. Geomorphology 120:248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glade T (2003) Landslide occurrence as a response to land use change: a review of evidence from New Zealand. Catena 51:297–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Govers G, Poesen J (1988) Assessment of the interrill and rill contributions to total soil loss from an upland field plot. Geomorphology 1:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Govers G, Van Oost K, Poesen J (2006) Responses of a semi-arid landscape to human disturbance: a simulation study of the interaction between rock fragment cover, soil erosion and land use change. Geoderma 133:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hallet B, Hunter L, Bogen J (1996) Rates of erosion and sediment evacuation by glaciers: a review of field data and their implications. Global Planet Change 12:213–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hovius N, Stark CP, Hao-Tsu C, Jiun-Chuan L (2000) Supply and Removal of Sediment in a Landslide-Dominated Mountain Belt: Central Range, Taiwan. The Journal of Geology 108: 73–89Google Scholar
  35. Ionita I (2006) Gully development in the Moldavian Plateau of Romania. Catena 68:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jetten V, de Roo A, Favis-Mortlock D (1999) Evaluation of field-scale and catchment-scale soil erosion models. Catena 37:521–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keefer DK (1995) Landslides caused by earthquakes. Geol Soc Am Bull 95:406–421Google Scholar
  38. Kirkby MJ, Jones RJA, Irvine B, Gobin A, Govers G, Cerdan O, Van Rompaey AJJ, Le Bissonnais Y, Daroussin J, King D, Montanarella L, Grimm M, Vieillefont V, Puigdefabregas J, Boer M, Kosmas C, Yassoglou N, Tsara M, Mantel S, Van Lynden GJ, Huting J (2004) Pan-European soil erosion risk assessment: the PESERA map, version 1 October 2003. Explanation of Special Publication Ispra 2004 no.73 (S.P.I.04.73). European Soil Bureau Research Report no. 16, Luxembourg, EUR 21176, 18 pp. + 1 mapGoogle Scholar
  39. Kirkby M, Irvine BJ, Jones R, Govers G, the PESERA team (2008) The PESERA coarse scale erosion model for Europe. I. Model rationale and implementation. Eur J Soil Sci 59:1293–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koppes MN, Montgomery DR (2009) The relative efficacy of fluvial and glacial erosion over modern to orogenic timescales. Nat Geosci 2:644–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Korup O, Tweed F (2007) Ice, moraine, and landslide dams in mountainous terrain. Quaternary Sci Rev 26:3406–3422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Korup O, McSaveney MJ, Davies TRH (2004) Sediment generation and delivery from large historic landslides in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geomorphology 61:189–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lach J, Wyzga B (2002) Channel incision and flow increase of the upper Wisloka river, southern Poland, subsequent to the reafforestation of its catchment. Earth Surf Process Landforms 27:445–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lasanta T, Beguería S, García-Ruiz J (2006) Geomorphic and hydrological effects of traditional shifting agriculture in a Mediterranean mountain, Central Spanish Pyrenees. Mt Res Dev 26:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee S, Tu Dan N (2005) Probabilistic landslide susceptibility mapping in the Lai Chau province of Vietnam: focus on the relationship between tectonic fractures and landslides. Environ Geol 48:778–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Licciardello F, Govers G, Cerdan O, Kirkby M, Vacca A, Kwaad FJPM (2009) Evaluation of the PESERA model in two contrasting environments. Earth Surf Process Landforms 34:629–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liébault F, Piégay H (2002) Causes of 20th century channel narrowing in mountain and piedmont rivers of southeastern France. Earth Surf Process Landforms 27:425–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lilliefors HW (1967) On the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. J Am Stat Assoc 62:399–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lorente A, Garcia-Ruiz M, Arnáez J (2002) Factors explaining the spatial distribution of hillslope debris flows. Mt Res Dev 22:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maetens W, Vanmaercke M, Poesen J (2009) Assessment of the effectiveness of soil and water conservation measures in reducing runoff and soil loss: establishment of a European database. In: Romero Diaz A, Belmonte Serrate F, Alonso Sarria F, López Bermúdez F (eds) Advances in studies on desertification. Contributions to the international conference on desertification in memory of professor John B. Thornes, ICOD, Murcia 2009, pp 303–306Google Scholar
  51. Maetens W, Poesen J, Vanmaercke M (2011). Confrontation of the PESERA map with measured soil loss rates at plot scale. EGU General Assembly 2011. Geophysical Research Abstracts 13: 228Google Scholar
  52. Marzolff I, Poesen J (2009) The potential of 3D gully monitoring with GIS using high-resolution aerial photography and a digital photogrammetry system. Geomorphology 111:48–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Marzolff I, Ries J, Poesen J (2011) Short-term versus medium-term monitoring for detecting gully-erosion variability in a Mediterranean environment. Earth Surf Process Landforms 36:1604–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Merritt W, Letcher R, Jakeman A (2003) A review of erosion and sediment transport models. Environ Model Softw 18:761–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Metzger M, Bunce R, Jongman R, Mücher C, Watkins J (2005) A climatic stratification of the environment of Europe. Global Ecol Biogeogr 14:549–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Montgomery DR (2002) Valley formation by fluvial and glacial erosion. Geology 30:1047–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Montgomery DR (2007) Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:13268–13272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Montgomery DR, Brandon MT (2002) Topographic controls on erosion rates in tectonically active mountain ranges. Earth Planet Sci Lett 201:481–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Montgomery DR, Schmidt KM, Greenberg HM, Dietrich WE (2000) Forest clearing and regional landsliding. Geology 28:311–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mücher CA, Klein JA, Wascher DM, Schaminée JHJ (2010) A new European landscape classification (LANMAP): a transparent, flexible and user-oriented methodology to distinguish landscapes. Ecol Indic 10:87–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nadal-Romero E, Martínez Murillo J, Vanmaercke M, Poesen J (2011) Scale-dependency of sediment yield from badland areas in Mediterranean environments. Progr Phys Geogr 35:297–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Notebaert B, Verstraeten G, Rommens T, Vanmontfort B, Govers G, Poesen J (2009) Establishing a Holocene sediment budget for the river Dijle. Catena 77:150–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Osterkamp WR, Toy TJ (1997) Geomorphic considerations for erosion prediction. Environ Geol 29:152–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ouimet WB, Whipple KX, Royden LH, Sun Z, Chen Z (2007) The influence of large landslides on river incision in a transient landscape: eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (Sichuan, China). GSA Bull 119:1462–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Poesen J, Hooke J (1997) Erosion, flooding and channel management in Mediterranean environments of southern Europe. Progr Phys Geogr 21:157–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Poesen J, Lavee H (1994) Rock fragments in top soils: significance and processes. Catena 23:1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Poesen J, Torri D, Bunte K (1994) Effects of rock fragments on soil erosion by water at different spatial scales: a review. Catena 23:141–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Poesen J, Nachtergaele J, Verstraeten G, Valentin C (2003) Gully erosion and environmental change: importance and research needs. Catena 50:91–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Quinton J, Govers G, Van Oost K, Bardgett RD (2010) The impact of agricultural soil erosion on biogeochemical cycling. Nat Geosci 3:311–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Renard K, Foster G, Weesies G, McCool D, Yoder D (1997) Predicting soil erosion by water: a guide to conservation planning with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Agriculture handbook No 703, 384 ppGoogle Scholar
  71. Renwick WH, Andereck ZD (2006) Reservoir sedimentation trends in Ohio, USA: sediment delivery and response to land-use change. In: Rowen JS, Duck RW, Werritty A (eds) Sediment dynamics and the hydromorphology of fluvial systems, publ 306. IAHS, Wallingford, pp 341–347Google Scholar
  72. Riihimaki CA, MacGregor KR, Anderson RS, Anderson SP, Loso MG (2005) Sediment evacuation and glacial erosion rates at a small alpine glacier. J Geophys Res 110:F03003. doi: 10.1029/2004JF000189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Salvador Sanchis MP, Torri D, Borselli L, Poesen J (2008) Climate effects on soil erodibility. Earth Surf Process Landforms 33:1082–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Seeger M, Ries J (2008) Soil degradation and soil surface process intensities on abandoned fields in Mediterranean mountain environments. Land Degrad Dev 19:488–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Slaymaker O (2003) The sediment budget as conceptual framework and management tool. Hydrobiologia 494:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stanners D, Bourdeau P (1995) Europe’s environment—the Dobris assessment, European Environment Agency. Available online:
  77. Straumann RK, Korup O (2009) Quantifying postglacial sediment storage at the mountain-belt scale. Geology 37:1079–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Syvitski JPM, Vörösmarty CJ, Kettner AJ, Green P (2005) Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean. Science 308:376–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Torri D, Poesen J, Borselli L (1997) Predictability and uncertainty of the soil erodibility factor using a global dataset. Catena 31:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trimble SW (1999) Decreased rates of alluvial sediment storage in the Coon Creek Basin, Wisconsin, 1975–93. Science 285:1244–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tsara M, Kosmas C, Kirkby M, Kosma D, Yassoglou N (2005) An evaluation of the PESERA soil erosion model and its application to a case study in Zakynthos, Greece. Soil Use Manag 21:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Van Den Eeckhaut M, Hervás J, Jaedicke C, Malet J-P, Picarelli L (2010) Calibration of logistic regression coefficients from limited landslide inventory data for European-wide landslide susceptibility modelling. In: Malet J-P, Glade T, Casagli N (eds) Proc. Int. conference mountain risks: bringing science to society, Florence, Italy, 24–26 November 2010. CERG, Strasbourg, pp 515–521Google Scholar
  83. Van Oost K, Govers G, Desmet P (2000) Evaluating the effects of changes in landscape structure on soil erosion by water and tillage. Landsc Ecol 15:577–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Van Rompaey A, Verstraeten G, Van Oost K, Govers G, Poesen J (2001) Modelling mean annual sediment yield using a distributed approach. Earth Surf Process Landforms 26:1221–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Van Rompaey A, Vieillefont V, Jones R, Montanarella L, Verstraeten G, Bazzoffi P, Dostal T, Krasa J, de Vente J, Poesen J (2003) Validation of soil erosion estimates at European scale. European Soil Bureau Research, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, EUR 20827 EN, 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  86. Van Rompaey A, Bazzoffi P, Jones RJA, Montanarella L (2005) Modelling sediment yields in Italian catchments. Geomorphology 65:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Van Walleghem T, Poesen J, Van Den Eeckhaut M, Nachtergaele J, Deckers J (2005a) Reconstructing rainfall and land-use conditions leading to the development of old Gullies. Holocene 15:378–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Van Walleghem T, Poesen J, Nachtergaele J, Verstraeten G (2005b) Characteristics, controlling factors and importance of deep gullies under cropland on loess-derived soils. Geomorphology 69:76–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vandaele K, Poesen J (1995) Spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion rates in an agricultural catchment, central Belgium. Catena 25:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vandekerckhove L, Poesen J, Oostwoud Wijdenes D, Nachtergaele J, Kosmas C, Roxo M, De Figueiredo T (2000) Thresholds for gully initiation and sedimentation in Mediterranean Europe. Earth Surf Process Landforms 25:1201–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vandekerckhove L, Poesen J, Govers G (2003) Medium-term gully headcut retreat rates in Southeast Spain determined from aerial photographs and ground measurements. Catena 50:329–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vandenberghe J (1995) Timescales, climate and river development. Quaternary Sci Rev 14:631–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vanmaercke M, Poesen J, Verstraeten G, Maetens W, de Vente J (2011a) Sediment yield as a desertification risk indicator. Sci Total Environ 409:1715–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vanmaercke M, Poesen J, Verstraeten G, de Vente J, Ocakoglu F (2011b) Sediment yield in Europe: spatial patterns and scale dependency. Geomorphology 130:142–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Verstraeten G, Van Oost K, Van Rompaey A, Poesen J, Govers G (2002) Evaluating an integrated approach to catchment management to reduce soil loss and sediment pollution through modelling. Soil Use Manag 19:386–394Google Scholar
  96. Vörösmarty C, Meybeck M, Fekete B, Sharma K, Green P, Syvitski J (2003) Anthropogenic sediment retention: major global impact from registered river impoundments. Global Planet Change 39:169–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Walling DE (1983) The sediment delivery problem. J Hydrol 65:209–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Walling DE, Collins AL (2005) Suspended sediment sources in British rivers. In: Walling DE, Horowitz AJ (eds) Sediment budgets 1, publ. 291. IAHS, Wallingford, pp 123–133Google Scholar
  99. Wilkinson BH, McElroy BJ (2007) The impact of humans on continental erosion and sedimentation. GSA Bull 119:140–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Woodward JC (1995) Patterns of erosion and suspended sediment yield in Mediterranean river basins. In: Foster I, Gurnell A, Webb B (eds) Sediment and water quality in river catchments. Wiley, Chichester, pp 365–389Google Scholar
  101. Yaalon D (1997) Soils in the Mediterranean region: what makes them different? Catena 28:157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias Vanmaercke
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Willem Maetens
    • 1
  • Jean Poesen
    • 1
  • Benediktas Jankauskas
    • 3
  • Genovaite Jankauskiene
    • 3
  • Gert Verstraeten
    • 1
  • Joris de Vente
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of GeographyKU LeuvenHeverleeBelgium
  2. 2.Research Foundation Flanders (FWO)BrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Kaltinenai Research StationLithuanian Research Centre of Agriculture and ForestryKaltinenaiLithuania
  4. 4.Soil Erosion and Conservation Research GroupCentro de Edafología y Biologia Aplicada del Segura CEBAS-CSICMurciaSpain

Personalised recommendations