Estimation of dynamic load of mercury in a river with BASINS-HSPF model
- 211 Downloads
Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element and a pervasive toxic pollutant. This study investigated the dynamic loads of Hg from the Cedar–Ortega Rivers watershed into the Lower St. Johns River (LSJR), Florida, USA, using the better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS)-hydrologic simulation program—FORTRAN (HSPF) model.
Materials and methods
The site-specific BASINS-HSPF model was developed for dynamic loads of Hg based on watershed, meteorological, and hydrological conditions. The model was calibrated and validated with existing field data. It was then applied to predict the daily and annual loads of Hg from the watershed outlet into the LSJR in response to rainfall events and water fluxes.
Results and discussion
In general, the predicted average daily total Hg flux during the 10-year simulation period was about 0.69 g ha−1 year−1. This finding was within the range of 0.22–1.41 g ha−1 year−1 reported in the Florida Everglades area. Simulations further revealed that the effects of rainfall events on Hg loading were significant, particularly in a very wet period. A maximum total Hg flux was predicted during this wet period at a rate of 122.59 g ha−1 year−1.
Results from this study provide a useful case study on estimating Hg contamination in watersheds. The approaches used in this study could be transferred to estimate the dynamic loads of Hg in watersheds from other regions.
KeywordsBASINS HSPF Mercury load Watershed modeling
- Bicknell BR, Imhoff JC, Kittle JL, Donigian AS, Johanson RC (1993) Hydrological Simulation Program—FORTRAN (HSPF): user’s manual for release 10. EPA-600/R-93/174. US EPA, AthensGoogle Scholar
- Bicknell BR, Imhoff JC, Kittle JL Jr, Jobes TH, Donigian AS Jr (2001) Hydrological Simulation Program—Fortran, HSPF, version 12, user’s manual. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, March 2001Google Scholar
- Bishop KH, Lee YH (1997) In: Sigel A, Sigel H (eds) Metal ions in biological systems, vol 34. Mercury and its effects on environment and biology. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 113Google Scholar
- Clement International Corporation (1994) Toxicological profile for mercury. US Dept. of Health & Human Services, NTIS, Atlanta, p 366Google Scholar
- Donigian AS Jr, Crawford NH (1976) Modeling pesticides and nutrients on agricultural lands. Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, EPA 600/2-7-76-043, 317 pGoogle Scholar
- Donogian AS, Imhoff JC, Bicknell BR, Kittle JI (1984) Application guide for hydrological simulation program-FORTRAN (HSPF). EPA, Athens. EPA-600/3-84-065Google Scholar
- Durell GS, Seavey JA, Higman J (2004) Sediment quality in the Lower St. Johns River and Cedar–Ortega River Basin: chemical contaminant characteristics. March 2001. Battelle, Duxbury, MA, 02332Google Scholar
- Eisler R (2004) Mercury hazards to living organisms. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, p 312Google Scholar
- Fleck JA, Alpers CN, Marvin-DiPasquale M, Hothem RL, Wright SA, Ellett K, Beaulieu E, Agee JL, Kakouros E, Kieu LH, Eberl DD, Blum AE, May JT (2011) The effects of sediment and mercury mobilization in the South Yuba River and Humbug Creek Confluence Area, Nevada County, California: Concentrations, speciation, and environmental fate—Part 1: Field characterization. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, 2010-1325A, 104 pGoogle Scholar
- Freeman RJ (2001) Simulation of total suspended solids loads into the Cedar/Ortega River, Duval County, Florida Using SWMM. Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, Florida. Technical Memorandum No. 46Google Scholar
- Keeler GJ, Marsik FJ, Al-Walli KI, Dvonch JT (2001) Modeled deposition of speciated mercury to the SFWMD Water Conservation Area 3A: 22 June 1995 to 21 June 1996. Project description and results. The University of Michigan Air Quality Laboratory, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
- Serpone N, BorgarelloE PE (1988) Photoreduction and photodegradation of inorganic pollutants: II. Selective reduction and recovery of Au, Pt, Pb, Rh, Hg, and Pb. In: Schiavello M (ed) Photocatalysis and environment. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 527–565Google Scholar
- Sim DB, Francis AW (2008) Mercury and cyanide used as indicators of sediment transport in ephemeral washes at the techatticup mine and mill site, nelson, Nevada (USA). Int J Soil Sediment Water 1:1–9Google Scholar
- US EPA (2010) BASINS 4.0 ((Better Assessment Science Integrating point & Non-point Sources) Description. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/datait/models/basins/BASINS4_index.cfm. Accessed 16 September 2011