Long-term tree growth rate, water use efficiency, and tree ring nitrogen isotope composition of Pinus massoniana L. in response to global climate change and local nitrogen deposition in Southern China
- 759 Downloads
We aimed to investigate long-term tree growth rates, water use efficiencies (WUE), and tree ring nitrogen (N) isotope compositions (δ15N) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) in response to global climate change and local N deposition in Southern China.
Materials and methods
Tree annual growth rings of Masson pine were collected from four forest sites, viz. South China Botanical Garden (SBG), Xi Qiao Shan (XQS) Forest Park, Ding Hu Shan (DHS) Natural Reserve, and Nan Kun Shan (NKS) Natural Reserve in Southern China. The mean annual basal area increment (BAI), WUE, and δ15N at every 5-year intervals of Masson pine during the last 50 years were determined. Regression analyses were used to quantify the relationships of BAI and WUE with atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, rainfall, and tree ring elemental concentrations at the four study sites.
Results and discussion
Tree BAI showed a quadratic relationship with rising [CO2]. The tipping points of [CO2] for BAI, the peaks of BAI when the critical [CO2] was reached, occurred earlier at the sites of SBG, XQS, and DHS which were exposed to higher temperature, N deposition, and lower mineral nutrient availability, as compared with the tipping points of [CO2] for BAI at the site of NKS which had higher rainfall, lower temperature, and better nutritional status. The average tipping point of [CO2] at the four sites for the BAI response curves was 356 ppm, after which, the BAI would be expected to decrease quadratically with rising [CO2]. The multiple regressions of BAI confirmed the relationships of long-term tree growth rate with rainfall, tree WUE, and nutrients and δ15N in tree rings. Nonlinear relationships between BAI and tree ring δ15N at DHS and negatively linear one at NKS reflected the fertilization effect of N deposition on tree growth rate initially, but this effect peaked or became negative once the forest approached or passed the N saturation. Nonlinear relations of tree WUE with rising [CO2] and summer temperature were also observed.
The tipping points of [CO2] for tree BAI were not uniform, but depended on the site conditions, such as hydrological and nutritional constraints. Nonlinear relationships should be considered for predicting the dynamics of long-term tree growth rate and above-ground forest carbon (C) stock in response to future global climate change (particularly rising [CO2]) and local N deposition.
KeywordsBasal area increment (BAI) Carbon sequestration Global climate change Masson pine Nitrogen deposition Tree ring
This research was funded by Natural Science Foundation (NSF) of China (No. 30570349), NSF of Guangdong Province (No. 8151065005000016 and 8451065005001317), and the Agricultural and Forestry Promotion Program of Nanhai Agro-forestry Extension Centre, Guangdong Province (No. 084101001). The Special Innovative Fund from the CAS Graduates Science and Social Practice Program (No. 079999A001) to FF Sun was also kindly acknowledged. The authors thank Dr. Wanglu Jia for his assistance in stable isotope analysis. Zhihong Xu acknowledges the funding support from the Australian Research Council.
- Editorial Committee of Forests of Guangdong (2005) Guangdong Yearbook. Guangdong Yearbook Publishing House, Guangzhou (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Elhani S, Guehl JM, Nys C, Picard JF, Dupouey JL (2005) Impact of fertilization on tree-ring δ15N and δ13C in beech stands: a retrospective analysis. Tree Physiol 25:1437–1446Google Scholar
- Guangdong Provincial Statistical Bureau (2001) Guangdong Statistical Yearbook. Chinese Statistical Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Guangdong Soil Survey Office (1993) Guangdong soil. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Gutierrez E (1988) Dendroecological Study of Fagus sylvatica L. in the Montseny Mountains (Spain). Acta Oecol Oecol Plant 9:301–309Google Scholar
- Hanson PJ, Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ, Tschaplinski TJ, Gunderson CA (2005) Importance of changing CO2, temperature, precipitation, and ozone on carbon and water cycles of an upland-oak forest: incorporating experimental results into model simulations. Glob Change Biol 11:1402–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hietz P, Wanek W, Dunisch O (2005) Long-term trends in cellulose δ13C and water-use efficiency of tropical Cedrela and Swietenia from Brazil. Tree Physiol 25:745–752Google Scholar
- Högberg P (1990) Forests losing large quantities of nitrogen have elevated 15 N: 14 N ratios. Oecologia 84:229–231Google Scholar
- Högberg P, Johannisson C (1993) 15 N abundance of forests is correlated with losses of nitrogen. Plant Soil 157:147–150Google Scholar
- Huang ZL, Ding MM, Zhang ZP, Yi WM (1994) The hydrological processes and nitrogen dynamics in a monsoon evergreen broad-leafed forest of Dinghushan. Acta Phytoecol Sin 18:194–199Google Scholar
- Huang ZQ, Xu ZH, Blumfield TJ, Bubb KA (2008a) Foliar δ13C and δ18O reveal differential physiological responses of canopy foliage to pre-planting weed control in a young spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata) plantation. Tree Physiol 28:1535–1543Google Scholar
- Huang ZQ, Xu ZH, Blumfield TJ, Bubb KA (2008b) Variations in relative stomatal and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in a young blackbutt (Eucalypt pilularis) plantation subjected to different levels of weed control. Tree Physiol 28:997–1005Google Scholar
- IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the gourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Liu DW, Xia H (2007) Chemical characteristics of precipitation in Foshan: comparing with Guangzhou. Environ Sci Technol 30:71–74 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Melillo J, Gallaghan T, Woodward F, Salati E, Sinha S (1990) Effects on ecosystems. In: Houghton J, Jenkins G, Ephraums J (eds) Climate change. The IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 289–310Google Scholar
- Prasolova NV, Xu ZH (2003) Genetic variation in branchlet nutrient concentrations at different canopy positions in relation to branchlet δ13C and δ18O and tree growth of 8–9 years old hoop pine families in two contrasting growing environments. Tree Physiol 23:675–684Google Scholar
- Prasolova NV, Xu ZH, Farquhar GD, Saffigna PG, Dieters MJ (2000) Variation in canopy δ13C of 8-year-old hoop pine families (Araucaria cunninghamii) in relation to canopy nitrogen concentration and tree growth in subtropical Australia. Tree Physiol 20:1049–1055Google Scholar
- Prasolova NV, Xu ZH, Farquhar GD, Saffigna PG, Dieters MJ (2001) Canopy carbon and oxygen isotope composition of 9-year-old hoop pine families in relation to seedling carbon isotope composition and growth, field growth performance and canopy nitrogen concentration. Can J For Res 31:673–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ren R, Mi FJ, Bai NB (2000) A chemometries analysis on the data of precipitation chemistry of China. J Bejing Polytech Univ 26:90–95Google Scholar
- Xu ZH, Saffigna PG, Farquhar GD, Simpson JA, Haines RJ, Walker S, Osborne DO, Guinto D (2000) Carbon isotope discrimination and oxygen isotope composition in clones of the F1 hybrid between slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and Caribbean pine (P. caribaea) in relation to tree growth, water-use efficiency and foliar nutrient concentration in subtropical Australia. Tree Physiol 20:1209–1217Google Scholar
- Zeng YJ, Chen ZX (2001) The changes of SO42–/NO3– in the precipitation of Guangzhou area. Guangzhou Environ Sci 16:18–20 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Zhou GY, Yan JH (2001) The influence of regional atmospheric precipitation characteristics and its element inputs on the existence and development of Dinghushan forest ecosystems. Acta Ecol Sin 21:2002–2012Google Scholar