Road-deposited sediment, soil and precipitation (RDS) in Bratislava, Slovakia: compositional and spatial assessment of contamination
- 228 Downloads
Background, aim and scope
The urban environment in Bratislava is, in association with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, significantly influenced by several potential sources of pollution, including automobile exhaust and industry emmissions. Urban road-deposited sediments contain many potentially toxic elements such as Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and also Fe at concentrations much higher than in soil. In this study, the chemical composition and spatial variability of road-deposited sediments in urban area of Bratislava were assessed for the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Fe and Mn. Additional evaluation of archive data for soil, snow and atmospheric dust was undertaken to provide an integrated view on urban environment contamination.
Materials and methods
Urban road-deposited sediments (RDS) were collected during summer 2003 and 2004 mainly from major city crossroads. RDS samples were analysed for total metal content, pseudo-total metal content (HNO3 digestion) and by a sequential extraction method, grain fraction composition and mineralogical composition (X-ray analysis). Metal concentrations in soil and snow samples from urban and non urban city area were compared.
Results and discussion
The highest concentrations for all metals were found in the finest RDS fraction (<0.125 mm). Whilst in the fraction <1 mm mean concentrations of Cr, Cu and Pb reached 55.2, 143.8 and 34.4 mg kg−1, respectively, for the fraction <0.125 mm, markedly higher contents of these elements were documented at the level of 86.8, 218.4 and 63.1 mg kg−1, respectively. The soil contents of potentially toxic risk elements in the urban area including As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher than in the non-urban area (except for Cd with similar contents). This distribution pattern of evaluated chemicals in urban and non-urban area is more evident in the case of winter precipitation (snow). The snow concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the urban area were two tot five times higher than in non-urban area.
Conclusions and recommendations
Monitoring of road-deposited sediments, dust, soil and precipitation has confirmed the significant contamination of the urban environment in Bratislava with potentially toxic elements that can pose a threat for the health of its residents. Future works should be based on analyses of temporal variability of RDS and analyses of organic matter content.
KeywordsBratislava Geochemistry Precipitation Road sediment Soil Urban environment
- Allmann R (2003) Röntgenpulverdiffraktometrie. Rechnergestuzte Auswertung, Phasenanalyse und Strukturbestimmung. Springer, Berlin, p 275Google Scholar
- Bodiš D, Lopašovská M, Lopašovský K, Rapant S (2000) Chemické zloženie snehovej pokrývky na Slovensku—výsledky 25-ročného pozorovania. Podzemná voda VI(2):162–173Google Scholar
- Carraz F, Taylor KG, Stainsby S, Robertson DJ (2006) Contaminated urban road deposited sediment (RDS), Greater Manchester, UK: a spatial assessment of potential surface water impacts. North West Geography 6:10–19Google Scholar
- Čurlík J, Šefčík P (1999) Geochemical Atlas of Slovakia—part V—soils. Monograph, Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic, geological survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava, 98 ppGoogle Scholar
- Hricko J, Šefara J, Kružliak P, Martinovič M, Pospíšil M, Tkáčová H, Grand T, Szalaiová V (1993) Bratislava—životné prostredie, abiotická zložka. Final report, Manuscript, Geocomplex, Bratislava, p 311Google Scholar
- Krčmová K, Robertson DJ, Gregor M, Rapant S (2005) Geochemistry of Urban street sediments of Bratislava, Slovakia. Slovak Geol Mag 11(4):225–232Google Scholar
- Mackových D, Nováková J, Šoltýsová H (2003) Optimalization of sequential extraction method for determination of toxic elements in soils and stream sediments. Slovak Geol Mag 9(2–3):129–131Google Scholar
- Marsina K, Bodiš D, Havrila M, Janák M, Káčer Š, Kohút M, Lexa J, Rapant S, Vozárová A (1999) Geochemical atlas of Slovak Republic, part III: rocks. Ministry of the Environment, Bratislava 135 ppGoogle Scholar
- Robertson DJ (2004) An investigation into the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of road-deposited sediment. PhD thesis, Manchester Metropolitan University, ManchesterGoogle Scholar
- SHMU (2006) Air pollution in the Slovak Republic 2004. Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava, p 92Google Scholar
- SUSR (2001) Population and housing census. Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava. www.portalstatistics.sk
- Varrica D, Dongarrà G, Sabatino G, Monna F (2003) Inorganic geochemistry of roadway dust from the metropolitan area of Palermo, Italy. Environ Geol 44(2):222–230Google Scholar
- Vrana K, Bodiš D, Lopašovský K, Rapant S (1989) Regionálno-hydrogeochemické zhodnotenie kvality snehovej pokrývky na území Slovenska. Západné Karpaty, Séria hydrogeológia a inžinierska geológia. GÚDŠ Bratislava 7:87–128Google Scholar
- WHO (2006) Health risk of particulate matter from long-range transboundary air pollution. European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office, World Health OrganisationGoogle Scholar
- Yu S (2007) Interannual variation of annual precipitation and urban effect on precipitation in the Beijing region. Prog Nat Sci 17(9):1042–1050Google Scholar