The purposes of this study were to quantify the resource consumption intensity of cement clinker production using natural mineral in China and to determine the influence of the utilization of calcium carbide sludge (CCS) for cement clinker production on the resource-accounting result.
Exergy-based resource accounting method was adopted by this study. Cumulative exergy demand (CExD) was used to characterize the resource consumption intensity of cement clinker production using natural mineral in China. Exergy-based characterization factors of land resource and CO2 emission were employed to determine the resource benefit brought by the substitution of CCS for natural limestone (land saving and CO2 reduction).
Results and discussion
The CExD value of cement clinker production using natural mineral as raw material in China is 5005 MJ/t, and the consumption of raw coal is the largest contributor to this result, accounting for approximately 81% of the CExD value. The phenomenon that coal consumption dominates the CExD result may be because, through combustion reactions, the chemical state of carbon contained in coal almost reaches equilibrium with its chemical dead state in terms of exergy and is deeply dissipated; in comparison, the major chemical compound contained in limestone, i.e., calcium oxide, is mostly transformed into cement clinker by the reactions occurred in the production system, instead of being consumed in a deeply dissipated way and emitted to the environment. The major disadvantage of using CCS for cement clinker production is the increase of coal consumption, i.e., 515 MJ/t cement clinker, and the major advantage of using CCS for cement clinker production is the resource benefit brought by CO2 reduction (the avoided biotic resource damage in ecosystem), i.e., 1160 MJ/t cement clinker.
From the analysis on the influence of the substitution of CCS for limestone on the resource consumption intensity, we found that the resource consumption intensity of the production system using CCS is approximately 15.5% lower than that of the production system using natural mineral; however, if this resource benefit is neglected, the resource consumption intensity of the production system using CCS is approximately 7.6% higher than that of the production system using natural mineral. We suggest that establishing a theoretical bridge between the characterization models of biotic resource and abiotic resource will still be a significant research direction in the future, which is fundamental in objectively understanding and unifying the issues of emission reduction and resource saving.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abadías Llamas A, Valero Delgado A, Valero Capilla A, Torres Cuadra C, Hultgren M, Peltomäki M, Roine A, Stelter M, Reuter MA (2019) Simulation-based exergy, thermo-economic and environmental footprint analysis of primary copper production. Miner Eng 131:51–65
Alvarenga RAF, Dewulf J, Langenhove HV, Huijbregts MAJ (2013) Exergy-based accounting for land as a natural resource in life cycle assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18(5):939–947
Bösch ME, Hellweg S, Huijbregts MAJ, Frischknecht R (2007) Applying cumulative exergy demand (CExD) indicators to the ecoinvent database. Int J Life Cycle Assess 12(3):181–190
Dewulf J, Van Langenhove H (2002) Assessment of the sustainability of technology by means of a thermodynamically based life cycle analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res 9(4):67–273
Dewulf J, Bösch ME, De Meester B, Van Der Vorst G, Van Langenhove H, Hellweg S, Huijbregts MAJ (2007) Cumulative exergy extraction from the natural environment (CEENE): a comprehensive life cycle impact assessment for resource accounting. Environ Sci Technol 41:8477–8483
Dewulf J, van Langenhove H, Muys B, Bruers S, Bakshi BR, Grubb GF, Paulus DM, Sciubba E (2008) Exergy: its potential and limitations in environmental science and technology. Environ Sci Technol 42:2221–2232
Finnvenden G, Östlund P (1997) Exergies of natural resources in life-cycle assessment and other applications. Energ 22(9):923–931
Goedkoop M, Spriensma R (2001) The ecoindicator-99-a damage oriented method for life cycle assessment. PRé Consultants, Amersfoot, The Netherlands
Guinée J (2002) Handbook on life cycle assessment-operational guide to ISO standards. Springer Netherlands, The Netherlands
Hong JL, Li XZ (2011) Environmental assessment of sewage sludge as secondary raw material in cement production-a case study in China. Waste Manag 31:1364–1371
Huibregts MAJ, Steinmann ZJN, Elshout PMF, Stam G, Verones F, Vieira MDM, Hollander A, Zijp M, van Zelm R (2017) ReCiPe 2016-a life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonized category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level, report I: characterization. National Institute for public health and the environment, The Netherlands
Jøgensen SE (2007) Description of aquatic ecosystem’s development by eco-exergy and exergy destruction. Ecol Model 204:22–28
Jøgensen SE, Odum HT, Brown MT (2004) Emergy and exergy stored in genetic information. Ecol Model 178:11–16
Koroneos CJ, Nanaki EA (2008) Energy and exergy utilization assessment of the Greek transport sector. Resour Conserv Recy 52(5):700–706
Li C, Nie ZR, Cui SP, Gong XZ, Wang ZH, Meng XC (2014) The life cycle inventory study of cement manufacture in China. J Clean Prod 72(1):204–211
Li C, Cui SP, Nie ZR, Gong XZ, Wang ZH, Itsubo N (2015) The LCA of Portland cement production in China. Int J Life Cycle Assess 20(1):117–127
Liao W, Heijungs R, Huppes G (2012) Thermodynamic resource indicators in LCA: a case study on the titania produced in Panzhihua city, Southwest China. Int J Life Cycle Assess 17(8):951–961
Liu Y (2012) Environmental assessment model of land use and its application in materials production. Ph. D Dissertation, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (in Chinese)
National Bureau of Statistics (2018) China statistical yearbook 2017. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese)
Outotec “HSC Chemistry 9” (2018). http://www.outotec.com/. Accessed 10 Nov 2019
Reuter MA (1998) The simulation of industrial ecosystems. Miner Eng 11:891–918
Reuter MA, van Schaik A (2015) Product-centric simulation-based design for recycling: case of LED lamp recycling. J Sustain Metall 1:4–28
Reuter MA, van Schaik A, Gediga J (2015) Simulation-based design for resource efficiency of metal production and recycling systems: cases-copper production and recycling, e-waste (LED lamps) and nickel pig iron. Int J Life Cycle Assess 20:671–693
Rosen MA, Dincer I (1997) On exergy and environmental impact. Int J Energ Res 21:643–654
Shi F, Wang Z, Fang M, Sun B, Zhao M, Cui S (2013) Analysis on the CO2 emission of calcium carbide slag as secondary raw material in cement clinker production. Mater Sci Forum 743-744:516–522
State Administration for Market Regulation of China (2008) Standardization Administration of China, 2008. National Standard of Portland cement clinker GB/T 21372–2008 (in Chinese)
State Administration for Market Regulation of China (2018) Standardization Administration of China., 2018. National Standard of China-general principles for assessment of green factory. GB/T 36132–2018 (in Chinese)
Sun B (2013) Exergy-based materials life cycle assessment and its application. Ph. D Dissertation, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (in Chinese)
Sun B, Nie Z, Gao F (2014a) Cumulative exergy consumption (CExC) analysis of energy carriers in China. Int J Exergy 15(2):196–213
Sun B, Liu Y, Nie Z, Zhang Y, Gao F (2014b) Exergy-based model for quantifying land resource in China: a case study of sintered brick. Int J Exergy 15(4):429–446
Sun B, Nie Z, Gao F, Liu Y, Wang Z, Gong X (2015) Cumulative exergy demand analysis of the primary aluminum produced in China and its natural resource-saving potential in transportation. Int J Life Cycle Assess 20:1048–1060
Szargut J (2005) Exergy method: technical and ecological applications. WIT Press, Southampton
Szargut J (2001) Sequence method of determination of partial exergy losses in thermal systems. Exergy Int J 1(2):85–90
Szargut J, Morris DR (1987) Cumulative exergy consumption and cumulative degree of perfection of chemical processes. Energ Res 11(11):245–261
Wang YL, Dong SJ, Liu LL, Cui SP (2013) Using calcium carbide slag as one of calcium-containing raw materials to produce cement clinker. Mater Sci Forum 743-744:171–174
Wang YL, Cui SP, Tian GP, Lan MZ (2017) Calculation of forming heat of cement clinker made from calcium carbide slag. DESTech transactions on materials science and engineering, 2017 joint international conference on materials science and engineering application (ICMSEA2017) and international conference on mechanics, civil engineering and building materials (MCEBM 2017)
Zhang B, Meng Z, Zhang L, Sun X, Hayat T, Alsaedi A, Ahmad B (2018) Exergy-based systems account of national resource utilization: China 2012. Resour Conserv Recy 132:324–338
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Responsible editor: Christopher J. Koroneos
About this article
Cite this article
Sun, B., Liu, Y., Nie, Z. et al. Exergy-based resource consumption analysis of cement clinker production using natural mineral and using calcium carbide sludge (CCS) as raw material in China. Int J Life Cycle Assess (2020) doi:10.1007/s11367-019-01725-4
- Calcium carbide sludge (CCS)
- Cement clinker
- Resource consumption