Advertisement

Life cycle inventory of power producing technologies and power grids at regional grid level in India

  • Muhammed Noor Hossain
  • Johan Tivander
  • Karin Treyer
  • Tereza Lévová
  • Lucia Valsasina
  • Anne-Marie Tillman
LCI METHODOLOGY AND DATABASES

Abstract

Purpose

Indian electricity production mix, technology level, and local production conditions vary across the states and union territories. This variability is obscured in existing national-level life cycle inventories of Indian power producing technologies and power systems, which potentially leads to inaccurate results from LCA studies that include Indian activities. This study aims to create a consistent regionalized inventory model of Indian power system parameters and to evaluate how that influences life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) calculations.

Methods

Data collection covers state-specific key parameters of domestic power production and distribution, and inter-exchanges among the regional grids and with other countries in 2012–2013. However, such regionalization work faces some data availability challenges. Power plant parameter data (e.g., efficiency, fuel quality, exact technology used) are mostly unavailable on plant level for India; if at all, relevant data are available on a state level. Moreover, local emission data are also mostly unavailable except emissions of CO2. Quantities of other important emissions (NOx, SOx, CH4, CO, PM) are, therefore, calculated based on emission factors from literature.

Results and discussion

Variation in electricity production volumes among the states and regional grids are found notably high. Six states contribute 55% of the national power supply, whereas ten states contribute only 2.1% to the total. Moreover, the five regional electricity grids—Eastern, Western, Southern, Northern, and North-eastern grids—show high variation in production mixes. These differences have a considerable impact on LCIA results. For instance, the contribution to the global warming potential per 1 kWh of electricity supplied to the grid is nearly twice as high in the Eastern grid as in the North-eastern grid. Furthermore, transformation and transmission losses are found to be high in the Indian electricity grids with an average of 17% technical losses along the transmission chain from high voltage to the low voltage.

Conclusions

Hence, we conclude that the inventory data produced in this study on Indian electricity production and distribution at grid level, taking local variations in technology mix and key parameters into account, enables higher accuracy in life cycle assessment studies compared to using average national-level data.

Keywords

Indian electricity Life cycle inventories Power generation technology Power systems Regionalization Variability 

Supplementary material

11367_2018_1536_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 26 kb)

References

  1. Boulay A-M, Bulle C, Bayart J-B, Deschenes L, Margni M (2011) Regional characterization of freshwater use in LCA: modeling direct impacts on human health. Environ Sci Technol 45:8948–8957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. CEA (2013a) Annual Report 2012-13. Central Electricity Authority. Accessed May 19, 2016. http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/annual/annualreports/annual_report-2013.pdf
  3. CEA (2013b) Region wise, state wise, sector wise, type wise, station wise, unit wise generation report for 31-Mar-2013. Central Electricity Authority (CEA) http://cea.nic.in/reports/daily/dgr/2013/March/31/dgr2.pdf
  4. CEA (2014) CO2 baseline database for the Indian power sector. Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  5. CEA (2016a) Executive summary, power sector, April-16. Central electricity authority, Ministry of power, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  6. CEA (2016b) Executive Summary, Power Sector, March-16. Government of India, Ministry of Power, Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi Accessed August 07, 2017. http://cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/executivesummary/2016/exe_summary-03.pdf Google Scholar
  7. Chandra N, Kaushika M, Saurine D (2014) Supply chain 2025 — Trends & Implications for India. AT Kearney and CSCMPGoogle Scholar
  8. Coltro L, Garcia EEC, Queiroz GdC (2003) Life cycle inventory for electric energy system in Brazil. Int J Life Cycle Assess 8(5):290–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. CSO (2015) Energy statistics. Central Statistics Office, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Curran MA, Mann M, Norris G (2005) The international workshop on electricity data for life cycle inventories. J Clean Prod 13:853–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Di X, Zuoren N, Baorong Y, Tieyong Z (2007) Life cycle inventory for electricity generation in China. Int J Life Cycle Assess 12(4):217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dubreuil A (2001) Inventory for energy production in Canada. Int J Life Cycle Assess 6(5):281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. EC-JRC (2012) Life cycle indicators basket-of-products: development of life cycle based macro-level monitoring indicators for resources, products and waste for the EU-27. JRC technical report EUR 25518 EN. European Commission. Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and SustainabilityGoogle Scholar
  14. EC-JRC (2017) European Commission Joint Research Centre. 29 January. Accessed January 29, 2017. http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/apps4/pvest.php?map=africa&lang=en
  15. Garcia R, Pedro M, Fausto F (2014) Life-cycle assessment of electricity in Portugal. Appl Energy 134:563–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Global Energy Observatory (2016) Accessed May 19, 2016. http://globalenergyobservatory.org/select.php?tgl=Edit
  17. Goedkoop MJ, Heijungs R, Huijbregts MAJ, De Schryver AM, Struijs J, Van Zelm R (2009) ReCiPe 2008: a life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level; first edition report I: characterisation. 6 January 2009Google Scholar
  18. Guttikunda SK, Jawahar P (2014) Atmospheric emissions and pollution from the coal-fired thermal power plants in India. Atmos Environ 92:449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hossain MN (2016) Regionalized life cycle inventory of power producing technologies and power grids in India. Master Thesis, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmers Reproservice, GothenburgGoogle Scholar
  20. IMF (2016) World economic outlook update, January 2016. International Monetary FundGoogle Scholar
  21. Itten R, Frischknecht R, Stucki M (2014) Life cycle inventories of electricity mixes and grid. Treeze Ltd., Uster, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim S, Dale BE (2005) Life cycle inventory information of the United States electricity system. Int J Life Cycle Assess 10(4):294–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kumar A (2008) A comprehensive study to aggregated technical & commercial losses. Retrieved from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/52389411/AT-C
  24. Lee K-M, Sang-Yong L, Tak H (2003) Life cycle inventory analysis for electricity in Korea. Energy 29:87–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lelek L, Kulczycka J, Lewandowska A, Zarebska J (2016) Life cycle assessment of energy generation in Poland. Int J Life Cycle Assess 21:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martin R (2015) India’s energy crisis. Can India modernize its manufacturing economy and supply electricity to its growing population without relying heavily on coal—and quite possibly destroying the global climate? MIT Technology Review. Retrieved from: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/542091/indias-energy-crisis/. Accessed 7 Oct 2017
  27. Matsuno Y, Betz M (2000) Development of life cycle inventories for electricity grid mixes in Japan. Int J Life Cycle Assess 5(5):295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Merciai S, Schmidt J H, Dalgaard R (2011) Inventory of country specific electricity in LCA - India. Inventory report v2. 2.-0 LCA consultants, Aalborg. Retrieved from: http://www.lca-net.com/projects/electricity_in_lca/. Accessed 7 Oct 2017
  29. Morais TG, Teixeira RFM, Domingos T (2016) Regionalization of agri-food life cycle assessment: a review of studies in Portugal and recommendations for the future. Int J Life Cycle Assess 21:875–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mutel CL, Hellweg S (2009) Regionalized life cycle assessment: computational methodology and application to inventory databases. Environ Sci Technol 43(15):5797–5803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mutel CL, Pfister S, Hellweg S (2012) GIS-based regionalized life cycle assessment: how big is small enough? Methodology and case study of electricity generation. Environ Sci Technol 46:1096–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Olivier JGJ, Greet J-M, Marilena M, Jeroen AHW (2016) Trends in global CO2 emissions: 2016 report. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, PBL Publishers, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  33. Payen S, Basset-Mens C, Follain S, Grünberger O, Marlet S, Núñez M, Perret S (2014) Pass the salt please! From a review to a theoretical framework for integrating salinization impacts in food LCA. 9th International Conference LCA of Food, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  34. Peiu N (2007) Life cycle inventory study of the electrical energy production in Romania. Int J Life Cycle Assess 12(4):225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pfister S, Stoessel F, Juraske R, Koehler A, Hellweg S (2008) Regionalised LCIA of vegetable and fruit production: quantifying the environmental impacts of freshwater use. Proc of the 6th Int Conf on LCA in the Agri-Food Sector Zurich, pp 16–21Google Scholar
  36. Planning Comission, Government of India (2014) Annual report (2013-14) on the working of state power utilities & electricity departments. Power and Energy Division, Planning Comission, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  37. Röder A, Bauer C, Dones RK (2007) Sachbilanzen von energiesystemen: grundlagen fü r den ö kologischen vergleich von energiesystemen und den einbezug von energiesystemen in Okobilanzen fü r die Schweiz. Final report ecoinvent v2. 0 No, 6. Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dübendorf, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  38. Santoyo-Castelazo E, Gujba H, Azapagic A (2011) Life cycle assessment of electricity generation in Mexico. Energy 36:1488–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Statistical Yearbook, India (2015) ministry of statistics and Programme implementation. Accessed 06 21, 2016. http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/SYB2015/ch16.html
  40. Tan RBH, Wijaya D, Khoo HH (2010) LCI (life cycle inventory) analysis of fuels and electricity generation in Singapore. Energy 35:4910–4916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thinkstep (2016) Life cycle inventory database. Extension XXI, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Treyer K, Bauer C (2013) Life cycle inventories of electricity generation and power supply in version 3 of the ecoinvent database—part I: electricity generation. Edited by Niels Jungbluth. Int J Life Cycle Assess 21(9):1236–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Treyer K, Bauer C (2014) Life cycle inventories of electricity generation and power supply in version 3 of the ecoinvent database—part II: electricity markets. Edited by Niels Jungbluth. Int J Life Cycle Assess 21(9):1255–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. United Nations (2017) World Population Prospects: the 2017 Revision, Key Findings and Advance. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP/248, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf
  45. Varabuntoonvit V, Sadamichi Y, Kato S, Mungcharoen T (2008) Life cycle inventory data development for greenhouse gas emissions of Thailand’s electricity grid generation systems. IJEEPS 9(1)Google Scholar
  46. Vattenfall (2012) Life cycle assessment - Vattenfall’s electricity generation in the Nordic countries. Vattenfall AB:26Google Scholar
  47. Weidema BP, Bauer C, Hischier R, Mutel C, Nemecek T, Reinhard J, Vadenbo CO, Wernet G (2013) Overview and methodology. Data quality guideline for the ecoinvent database version 3. Ecoinvent Report 1(v3). The ecoinvent Centre, St. GallenGoogle Scholar
  48. Wernet G, Bauer C, Steubing B, Reinhard J, Moreno-Ruiz E, Weidema B (2016) The ecoinvent database version 3 (part I): overview and methodology. Int J Life Cycle Assess 21(9):1218–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Widiyanto A, Kato S, Maruyama N (2003) Environmental impact analysis of Indonesian electric generation systems (development of a life cycle inventory of Indonesian electricity). JSME Int J, Ser B 46(4):650–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammed Noor Hossain
    • 1
  • Johan Tivander
    • 1
  • Karin Treyer
    • 2
  • Tereza Lévová
    • 3
  • Lucia Valsasina
    • 3
  • Anne-Marie Tillman
    • 1
  1. 1.Chalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Paul Scherrer InstitutVilligenSwitzerland
  3. 3.Ecoinvent CentreZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations