The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

, Volume 23, Issue 10, pp 1916–1927 | Cite as

Well-to-wheel GHG emissions and mitigation potential from light-duty vehicles in Macau

  • Qingbin Song
  • Ye Wu
  • Jinhui Li
  • Zhishi Wang
  • Danfeng Yu
  • Huabo Duan



The rapid growth of vehicle sales and usage has highlighted the need for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in Macau, a special administrative region (SAR) of China. As the most primary vehicle type, light-duty vehicles (LDV, including light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) and light-duty diesel vehicles (LDDVs)) play a key role in promoting the GHG reduction and development of green transportation system in Macau.


This study, on the basis of real-world tested and statistical data, firstly performed a streamlined life-cycle assessment (SLCA) on LDVs, to evaluate the potential GHG emissions and reduction through shifting to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs).

Results and discussion

The results show that the mean GHG emissions from the LDGVs, LDDVs, and HEVs per 100 km were 25.16, 20.30, and 15.00 kg CO2 eq, respectively. Under the current electricity mix in Macau, EVs with the emissions of 12.39 kg CO2 eq/100 km can achieve a significant GHG emission reduction of LDVs in Macau. The total GHG emissions from LDVs increased from 124.99 to 247.82 thousand metric tons over the periods 2001–2014, with a 5.42% annual growth rate. A scenario analysis indicated that the development of HEVs and EVs—especially EVs—has the potential to control the GHG emissions from LDVs. Under the electricity mix of natural gas (NG) and solar energy (SE), the GHG emissions from EVs would drop by about 22 and 28%, respectively, by 2030.


This study develops a useful approach to evaluate the potential GHG emissions and its reduction strategies in Macau. All the obtained results could be useful for decision makers, providing robust support for drawing up an appropriate plan for improving green transportation systems in Macau.


Electric vehicles GHG emissions LCA Light-duty diesel vehicles Light-duty gasoline vehicle Macau 



This work was supported by the Foundation for Development of Science and Technology of Macau (FDCT) (no. 083/2015/A3), the Shenzhen Science and Technology Plan (JCYJ20150525092941042) and the Young Faculty Promotion Plan of Guangdong Province (YQ2015139).

Supplementary material

11367_2017_1424_MOESM1_ESM.docx (72 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 72 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Macau Environmental Research InstituteMacau University of Science and TechnologyMacauChina
  2. 2.School of EnvironmentTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Civil EngineeringShenzhen UniversityShenzhenChina

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