Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) bouchot culture in Mont-St Michel Bay: potential mitigation effects on climate change and eutrophication
- 163 Downloads
Bivalve production is an important aquaculture activity worldwide, but few environmental assessments have focused on it. In particular, bivalves’ ability to extract nutrients from the environment by intensely filtering water and producing a shell must be considered in the environmental assessment.
LCA of blue mussel bouchot culture (grown out on wood pilings) in Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France) was performed to identify its impact hotspots. The chemical composition of mussel flesh and shell was analyzed to accurately identify potential positive effects on eutrophication and climate change. The fate of mussel shells after consumption was also considered.
Results and discussion
Its potential as a carbon-sink is influenced by assumptions made about the carbon sequestration in wooden bouchots and in the mussel shell. The fate of the shells which depends on management of discarded mussels and household waste plays also an important role. Its carbon-sink potential barely compensates the climate change impact induced by the use of fuel used for on-site transportation. The export of N and P in mussel flesh slightly decreases potential eutrophication. Environmental impacts of blue mussel culture are determined by the location of production and mussel yields, which are influenced by marine currents and the distance to on-shore technical base.
Bouchot mussel culture has low environmental impacts compared to livestock systems, but the overall environmental performances depend on farming practices and the amount of fuel used. Changes to the surrounding ecosystem induced by high mussel density must be considered in future LCA studies.
KeywordsCarbon sink Climate change Eutrophication LCA Mussel
The authors thank Mytilimer SARL for their support and the farmers for their time and data provision. We also thank Michelle and Michael Corson for proofreading the manuscript’s English.
- ADEME (2008) Le traitement des ordures ménagères en France en 2008. Online: http://www2.ademe.fr/servlet/KBaseShow?sort=-1&cid=96&m=3&catid=24147
- Aubin J (2013) Life cycle analysis as applied to environmental choices regarding farmed or wildcaught fish. CAB reviews: perspectives in agriculture, veterinary science, nutrition and natural. Resources 8(11)Google Scholar
- Brenner M, Fraser D, Van Nieuwenhove K, O'Beirn F, Buck BH, Mazurié J, Thorarinsdottir G, Dolmer P, Sanchez-Mata A, Strand O, Flimlin G, Miossec L, Kamermans P (2014) Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities Ocean & Coastal Management 89:139–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.10.009 Google Scholar
- Chairattana C, Powtongsook S, Dharmvanij S, Manasveta P (2012) Biological carbon dioxide assimilation process using marine phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica and bivalve Perna viridis. Environ. Asia 5(1):63–69Google Scholar
- FAO (2016) State of world fisheries and aquaculture 2016. Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. Food & Agriculture Org, Roma (Italia) 200 ppGoogle Scholar
- FAO (2012) Mytilus edulis. http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Mytilus_edulis/fr
- Filgueira R, Byron CJ, Comeau LA, Costa-Pierce B, Cranford PJ, Ferreira JG, Grant J, Guyondet T, Jansen HM, Landry T, McKindsey CW, Petersen JK, Reid GK, Robinson SMC, Smaal A, Sonier R, Strand Ø, Strohmeier T (2015) An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 518:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Frischknecht R, Jungbluth N, Althaus HJ, Doka G, Dones R, Hirschier R, Hellweg S, Humbert S, Margni M, Nemecek T, Speilmann M (2004) Implementation of Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methods (version 1.1). Eco-Invent Report No. 3. Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dübendorf, 116 ppGoogle Scholar
- Fry JM (2012) Carbon Footprint of Scottish Suspended Mussels and Intertidal Oysters. SARF 078, Final Report, Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum (SARF). Pitlochry, Perthshire, UK, 55 ppGoogle Scholar
- Guinée JB, Gorrée M, Heijungs R, Huppes G, Kleijn R, de Koning A, van Oers L, Wegener Sleeswijk A, Suh S, Udo de Haes HA, de Bruijn H, van Duin R, Huijbregts MAJ (2002) Handbook on life cycle assessment. An operational guide to the ISO standards. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 692Google Scholar
- IPCC 2006 (2006) IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Volume 5: Waste. Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds). IGES, JapanGoogle Scholar
- ISO (2006a) EN ISO 14040: Environmental management—Life Cycle Assessment—principles and framework. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, July 2006:20Google Scholar
- ISO (2006b) EN ISO 14044: Environmental management— Life Cycle Assessment—Requierments and guidelines. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, July 2006:20Google Scholar
- Jansen HM (2012) Bivalve nutrient cycling—nutrient turnover by suspended mussel communities in oligotrophic fjords. Wageningen University, Wageningen 152 pGoogle Scholar
- Joint Research Centre (JRC) (2010) International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook - General guide for Life Cycle Assessment - Detailed guidance. First edition March 2010. EUR 24708 EN. Publications Office of the European Union. Luxembourg. 417 pGoogle Scholar
- Katajajuuri JM (2008) Experiences and improvement possibilities—LCA case study of broiler chicken production. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector. 12–14 November, Zurich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Swiss Center for Life Cycle Inventories (2013) Ecoinvent v3 Database. Ecoinvent Center (2013), Online: http://www.ecoinvent.org/
- Tanguy H, Ferlin P, Suche JM (2008) Rapport final de la mission sur le développement de l’aquaculture. Ministère de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche, Ministère de l’Ecologie, de l’énergie et du Développement Durable, Paris 62 pGoogle Scholar
- USDA (2012) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Basic Report: 15123, Fish, tuna, fresh, skipjack, raw. http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/4603 (visited 12 Aug 2012)
- Williams AG, Audsley E, Sandars DL (2006) Determining the environmental burdens and resource use in the production of agricultural and horticultural commodities. Main Report Defra Research Project ISO205, Bedford: Cranfield University and DefraGoogle Scholar
- Wolff JG, Beaumont A (2011) Shellfish sequestration: the augmented cultivation of Molluscs, and the preservation of their shells, as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. Available. http://www.shellfishsequestration.org
- Zeebe RE, Wolf-Gladrow D (2001) CO2 in seawater: equilibrium, kinetics, isotopes. Elsevier Oceanography Series, 65. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherland, 100 ppGoogle Scholar