ReCiPe2016: a harmonised life cycle impact assessment method at midpoint and endpoint level

  • Mark A. J. Huijbregts
  • Zoran J. N. Steinmann
  • Pieter M. F. Elshout
  • Gea Stam
  • Francesca Verones
  • Marisa Vieira
  • Michiel Zijp
  • Anne Hollander
  • Rosalie van Zelm
COMMENTARY AND DISCUSSION ARTICLE

Abstract

Purpose

Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) translates emissions and resource extractions into a limited number of environmental impact scores by means of so-called characterisation factors. There are two mainstream ways to derive characterisation factors, i.e. at midpoint level and at endpoint level. To further progress LCIA method development, we updated the ReCiPe2008 method to its version of 2016. This paper provides an overview of the key elements of the ReCiPe2016 method.

Methods

We implemented human health, ecosystem quality and resource scarcity as three areas of protection. Endpoint characterisation factors, directly related to the areas of protection, were derived from midpoint characterisation factors with a constant mid-to-endpoint factor per impact category. We included 17 midpoint impact categories.

Results and discussion

The update of ReCiPe provides characterisation factors that are representative for the global scale instead of the European scale, while maintaining the possibility for a number of impact categories to implement characterisation factors at a country and continental scale. We also expanded the number of environmental interventions and added impacts of water use on human health, impacts of water use and climate change on freshwater ecosystems and impacts of water use and tropospheric ozone formation on terrestrial ecosystems as novel damage pathways. Although significant effort has been put into the update of ReCiPe, there is still major improvement potential in the way impact pathways are modelled. Further improvements relate to a regionalisation of more impact categories, moving from local to global species extinction and adding more impact pathways.

Conclusions

Life cycle impact assessment is a fast evolving field of research. ReCiPe2016 provides a state-of-the-art method to convert life cycle inventories to a limited number of life cycle impact scores on midpoint and endpoint level.

Keywords

Characterisation factors Ecosystem quality Endpoint indicator Human health Midpoint indicator Resource scarcity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research was supported by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM-project S/607020, Measurably Sustainable within the spearhead Healthy and Sustainable Living Environment, commissioned by the Director-General of RIVM and run under the auspices of RIVM’s Science Advisory Board.

Supplementary material

11367_2016_1246_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (106 kb)
ESM 1(XLSX 105 kb)
11367_2016_1246_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (6 mb)
ESM 2(XLSX 6155 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. J. Huijbregts
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zoran J. N. Steinmann
    • 1
  • Pieter M. F. Elshout
    • 1
  • Gea Stam
    • 1
    • 3
  • Francesca Verones
    • 4
  • Marisa Vieira
    • 1
    • 5
  • Michiel Zijp
    • 3
  • Anne Hollander
    • 3
  • Rosalie van Zelm
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Faculty of ScienceRadboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Dutch Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL)The HagueThe Netherlands
  3. 3.National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Centre of Sustainability, Environment and Health (DMG)BilthovenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Industrial Ecology Programme, Department for Energy and Process EngineeringNorwegian University and Science (NTNU)TrondheimNorway
  5. 5.PRé ConsultantsAmersfoortThe Netherlands

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