Analysis of water use impact assessment methods (part B): applicability for water footprinting and decision making with a laundry case study

  • Anne-Marie BoulayEmail author
  • Jean-Baptiste Bayart
  • Cecile Bulle
  • Helen Franceschini
  • Masaharu Motoshita
  • Ivan Muñoz
  • Stephan Pfister
  • Manuele Margni



The integration of different water impact assessment methods within a water footprinting concept is still ongoing, and a limited number of case studies have been published presenting a comprehensive study of all water-related impacts. Although industries are increasingly interested in assessing their water footprint beyond a simple inventory assessment, they often lack guidance regarding the applicability and interpretation of the different methods available. This paper aims to illustrate how different water-related methods can be applied within a water footprint study of a laundry detergent and discuss their applicability.


The concept of water footprinting, as defined by the recently published ISO Standard (ISO 2014), is illustrated through the case study of a load of laundry using water availability and water degradation impact categories. At the midpoint, it covers scarcity, availability, and pollution indicators such as eutrophication, acidification, human, and eco-toxicity. At the endpoint, impacts on human health and ecosystems are covered for water deprivation and degradation. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the most sensitive modeling choices identified in part A of this paper.

Results and discussion

The applicability of the different methodologies and their interpretation within a water footprint concept for decision making is presented. The discussion covers general applicability issues such as inventory flow definition, data availability, regionalization, and inclusion of wastewater treatment systems. Method-specific discussion covers the use of interim ecotoxicity factors, the interaction of scarcity and availability assessments and the limits of such methods, and the geographic coverage and availability of impact assessment methods. Lastly, possible double counting, databases, software, data quality, and integration of a water footprint within a life cycle assessment (LCA) are discussed.


This study has shown that water footprinting as proposed in the ISO standard can be applied to a laundry detergent product but with caveats. The science and the data availability are rapidly evolving, but the results obtained with present methods enable companies to map where in the life cycle and in the world impacts might occur.


Water availability Water degradation Water footprint Water scarcity Water use impacts 



The authors would like to thank Anna Kounina for her contribution in the original work of the case study and Samuel Vionnet for his support on the case study. We acknowledge the financial support of the industrial partners in the International Chair in Life Cycle Assessment (a research unit of CIRAIG): Arcelor Mittal, Bombardier, le Mouvement Desjardins, Hydro-Québec, LVMH, Michelin, Nestlé, RECYC-QUÉBEC, RONA, SAQ, Solvay, Total, Umicore, and Veolia Environnement.

Supplementary material

11367_2015_868_MOESM1_ESM.docx (119 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 119 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne-Marie Boulay
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jean-Baptiste Bayart
    • 2
  • Cecile Bulle
    • 1
  • Helen Franceschini
    • 3
  • Masaharu Motoshita
    • 4
    • 6
  • Ivan Muñoz
    • 3
  • Stephan Pfister
    • 5
  • Manuele Margni
    • 1
  1. 1.CIRAIGEcole Polytechnique of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.QuantisLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Safety and Environmental Assurance CentreUnileverColworthUK
  4. 4.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyTsukubaJapan
  5. 5.Institute for Environmental EngineeringETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  6. 6.Department of Environmental TechnologyTechnical University of BerlinBerlinGermany

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