LCA-based study on structural retrofit options for masonry buildings
- 693 Downloads
Over the last decade, the rehabilitation/renovation of existing buildings has increasingly attracted the attention of scientific community. Many studies focus intensely on the mechanical and energy performance of retrofitted/renovated existing structures, while few works address the environmental impact of such operations. In the present study, the environmental impact of typical retrofit operations, referred to masonry structures, is assessed. In particular, four different structural options are investigated: local replacement of damaged masonry, mortar injection, steel chain installation, and grid-reinforced mortar application. Each different option is analyzed with reference to proper normalized quantities. Thus, the results of this analysis can be used to compute the environmental impact of real large-scale retrofit operations, once the amount/extension of them is defined in the design stage. The final purpose is to give to designers the opportunity to monitor the environmental impact of different retrofit strategies and, once structural requirements are satisfied, identify for each real case the most suitable retrofit option.
The environmental impact of the structural retrofit options is assessed by means of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A cradle to grave system boundary is considered for each retrofit process. The results of the environmental analysis are presented according to the data format of the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) standard. Indeed, the environmental outcomes are expressed through six impact categories: global warming, ozone depletion, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidation, and nonrenewable energy.
Results and discussion
For each retrofit option, the interpretation analysis is conducted in order to define which element, material, or process mainly influenced the LCA results. In addition, the results revealed that the recycling of waste materials provides environmental benefits in all the categories of the LCA outcomes. It is also pointed out that a comparison between the four investigated options would be meaningful only once the exact amount of each operation is defined for a specific retrofit case.
This paper provides a systematic approach and environmental data to drive the selection and identification of structural retrofit options for existing buildings, in terms of sustainability performance. The final aim of this work is also to provide researchers and practitioners, with a better understanding of the sustainability aspects of retrofit operations. In fact, the environmental impacts of the retrofit options here investigated can be used for future research/practical activities, to monitor and control the environmental impact of structural retrofit operations of existing masonry buildings.
KeywordsLocal replacement Masonry structures Mortar injection Reinforced grid Steel chain Structural retrofit
- AFV Beltrame Group (2012) Environmental product declaration of manufacturing plants. Institut Bauen und Umwelt e.V. (IBU) Declaration nr. S-P-00252Google Scholar
- Boylu M (2005) A benefit/cost analysis for the seismic rehabilitation of existing reinforced concrete buildings in Izmir. İzmir Institute of Technology, İzmir, p 206Google Scholar
- Circolare n. 617 (2009) Istruzioni per l’applicazione delle ‘Nuove norme tecniche per le costruzioni di cui al decreto ministeriale 14 gennaio 2008Google Scholar
- CNR-DT 200 (2004) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, guide for the design and construction of externally bonded FRP system for strengthening existing structures. Rome 13/07/2004Google Scholar
- DOCC&EE (2011) Securing a clean energy future - The australian government’s climate change plan. Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, Commonwealth of Australia - ISBN 978-0-642-74723-5Google Scholar
- Hedemann J, König U (2007) Technical documentation of the ecoinvent database. Final report ecoinvent data v2.2 No. 4, Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, Dübendorf, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- HUD/U.S. (2005) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Washington, DC 20410–8000 - MORTGAGEE LETTER 2005–50: Enhancements to “Streamlined (k)” Limited Repair ProgramGoogle Scholar
- ISO:14025 (2006) Environmental labels and declarations—type III environmental declarations—principles and procedures, ISO - International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
- ISO:14040 (2006) Environmental management—life cycle assessment—principles and framework, ISO - International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
- ISO:14044 (2006) Environmental management—life cycle assessment—requirements and guidelines, ISO - International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
- Kanapeckiene L, Kaklauskas A et al (2011) Method and system for multi-attribute market value assessment in analysis of construction and retrofit projects. Expert Syst Appl 38(11):14196–14207Google Scholar
- MIT (2014) Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti (Italy) - DECRETO-LEGGE 28 marzo 2014, n. 47 Misure urgenti per l’emergenza abitativa, per il mercato delle costruzioni e per Expo 2015. (14G00059) (GU n.73 del 28-3-2014)Google Scholar
- Moliner E, Fabregat J, Cseh M, Vidal R (2013) Life cycle assessment of a fibre-reinforced polymer made of glass fibre phenolic resin with brominated flame retardant. 1st Symposium of the Spanish LCA Network: LCA & Bioenergy, 2013Google Scholar
- NTC (2008) NTC, Norme Tecniche per le Costruzioni, D.M 14 gennaio 2008Google Scholar
- ReLuis (2011) (Rete dei Laboratori Universitari di Ingegneria Sismica), linee guida per riparazione e rafforzamento di elementi strutturali, tamponature e partizioni, www.reluis.it/doc/pdf/Linee_guida1.pdf
- UNI EN 1015–19 (2008) Methods of test for mortar for masonry—part 19: determination of water vapour permeability of hardened rendering and plastering mortarsGoogle Scholar
- UNI EN 13242 (2002) Aggregates for unbound and hydraulically bound materials for use in civil engineering work and road constructionGoogle Scholar
- UNI EN 15804 (2012) Sustainability of construction works—environmental product declarations—core rules for the product category of construction productsGoogle Scholar
- UNI EN 998–2 (2004) Specification for mortar for masonry—masonry mortarGoogle Scholar
- Zhang C, Lin WX et al (2012) Environmental evaluation of FRP in UK highway bridge deck replacement applications based on a comparative LCA study. Adv Mat Res 374:43–48Google Scholar