Life cycle assessment of the supply chain of a Portuguese wine: from viticulture to distribution
- 2k Downloads
This paper performs a life cycle assessment study for a white wine produced in the northern part of Portugal, i.e. the white vinho verde. The purpose is to identify the environmental impacts occurring along the wine life cycle as well as the stages that mostly contribute to the environmental impact, as well as the associated causes. The stages considered include: (1) viticulture, (2) wine production (vinification to storage), (3) wine distribution and (4) bottles production.
The consumption of materials and energy, as well as the emissions to air, soil and water from the wine campaign of 2008/2009 were reported to the functional unit (0.75 l of white vinho verde). A Portuguese company that produces about 25 % of the current total production of white vinho verde supplied specific life cycle data for the stages of viticulture, wine production and distribution. SimaPro and the Ecoinvent database were used to perform the environmental assessment using CML 2001 impact methodology. A sensitivity analysis for a set of significant parameters was performed.
Results show that for viticulture the contribution of each impact category is larger than 50 %. The production of bottles is the second contributor varying from about 4 % (to eutrophication) to 26 % (to acidification). Wine production and distribution are the subsequent contributors. The contribution of wine production varies between 0.6 % (to land competition) and about 13 % (from marine aquatic and sediment ecotoxicity 100a). The contribution of distribution is up to 14 % (to photochemical oxidation). Sensitivity analysis shows that significant changes are calculated for parameters as the nitrate leaching to groundwater, the emission of nitrous oxide from managed soil, and from runoff and leaching. Changes in these parameters are significant for only a few impact categories as eutrophication and global warming.
Viticulture is the stage with the largest relative contribution to the overall environmental impact and the bottle production is the subsequent stage. In order to improve the environmental performance of the supply chain for wine, it is necessary to optimise the dosage of fertilisers and phytosanitary products used during viticulture. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the most influential parameters relate with the emission of nitrogen compounds associated with the use of fertilisers.
KeywordsDistribution Fertilisers Life cycle assessment (LCA) Phytosanitary products Viticulture White wine
The authors gratefully acknowledge Aveleda, S.A. for allowing this study to take place. Thanks are also due to Science and Technology Foundation (FCT), Portugal for the scholarship granted to Ana Cláudia Dias (SFRH/BPD/20363/2004).
- APA (Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente) (2011) Embalagens e Resíduos de embalagens. Situação de referência 2004–2010 (in Portuguese) Departamento de Fluxos Especiais e Mercado de Resíduos. Divisão de Entidade Gestoras e Mercado de Resíduos Available in http://www.apambiente.pt/_zdata/Politicas/Residuos/FluxosEspecificosResiduos/ERE/SituacaoReferenciaERE.pdf. Accessed Sep 2012
- Aranda A, Scarpellini S, Zabalza I (2005) Economic and environmental analysis of the wine bottle production in Spain by means of life cycle assessment. Int J Agric Resour Gov Ecol 4(2):178–191Google Scholar
- Audsley E (1997) Harmonization of environmental life cycle assessment for agriculture. European Commission DG VI Agriculture. Silsoe Research Institute, SilsoeGoogle Scholar
- Bosco S, Di Bene C, Galli M, Remorini D, Massai R, Bonari E (2011) Greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural phase of wine production in the Maremma rural district in Tuscany, Italy. Ital J Agron 6(e15):93–100Google Scholar
- CVRVV (Comissão de Viticultura da Região dos Vinhos Verdes) (2011) Statistics of production and exportation of vinho verde. Available in http://www.vinhoverde.pt/en/. Accessed Jan 2012
- Ecoinvent (2011) Ecoinvent (database ecoinvent data v.2.2) available in http://www.ecoinvent.ch/
- EMEP/EEA (2009) 4.G—Agriculture other (use of pesticides and limestone). In Air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009—technical report no 9/2009. European Environment Agency: CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
- EPD (2008a) Environmental product declaration. Bottled red sparkling wine. “Grasparossa Righi, validated environmental product declaration No S-P-00109. Available in http://gryphon.environdec.com/data/files/6/7505/EPD%20S-P-00109%20ingl-2008-def.pdf. Accessed Sep 2012
- EPD (2008b) Environmental product declaration. Bottled organic Lambrusco Grasparossa red sparkling wine “Fratello Sole”. Available in http://gryphon.environdec.com/data/files/6/7521/EPD_Fratello%20Sole_english%202008-def.pdf. Validated environmental product declaration No S-P-00119. Accessed Sep 2012
- Gonzalez A, Klimchuck A, Martin M (2006) Life cycle assessment of wine production process: finding relevant process efficiency and comparison to eco-wine production. Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Infrastructure. Life Cycle Assessment Course (1 N1800). Stockholm, KTH-Royal Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
- Hauschild M (2000) Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products. In: Weidema BP, Meeusen MJG (eds) Agricultural data for life cycle assessments, volume 1. Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), The HagueGoogle Scholar
- IEPDS (The International Environmental Product Declaration System) (2011) Product category rules. CPC Subclass 24212. Wine of fresh grapes, except sparkling; grape must. PCR 2010:02, version 1.01. Available in http://www.environdec.com/en/Product-Category-Rules/Detail/?Pcr=5850. Accessed Sep 2012
- IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2006a) In 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Inventories. Vol.4: Agriculture, forestry and other land use, chapter 11: N2O emissions from managed soils, and co2 emissions from lime and urea. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. In: Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds) N2O Emissions from managed soils and CO2 emissions from lime and urea application. Published by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), HayamaGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2006b) In 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Inventories. Vol.2: Energy. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme. In: Eggleston HS, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds) Stationary combustion. Published by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), HayamaGoogle Scholar
- IVV (Instituto da Vinha e do Vinho) (2010) Portuguese statistics for wine production and exportation. Available in http://www.ivv.min-agricultura.pt/np4/home.html. Accessed Sep 2011
- Machado M (2011) Modelling the life cycle of vinho verde and wine cork stoppers through the use of several impact assessment methods (in Portuguese). Master thesis dissertation in Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University, PortoGoogle Scholar
- Milà i Canals L (2003) Contributions to LCA methodology for agricultural systems. Site-dependency and soil degradation impact assessment. PhD thesis in Environmental Sciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona. Available in http://www.tesisenxarxa.net/TDX-1222103-154811/. Accessed Oct 2011
- Nemecek T, Kägi T (2007) Life cycle inventories of agricultural production systems. Ecoinvent report no. 15. ART Zurich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- OIV (International Organisation of Vine and Wine) (2010) Statistics of production and exportation. Available in http://www.oiv.int/oiv/cms/index. Accessed Sep 2011
- Petti L, Raggi A, Camillis C, Matteucci P, Sára B, Pagliuca G (2006) Life cycle approach in organic wine-making firm: an Italian case study. 5th Australian Conference on Life Cycle Assessment. Australian Life Cycle Assessment Society. MelbourneGoogle Scholar
- Peynaud E (1981) Conhecer e trabalhar o vinho (in Portuguese). Biblioteca Agrícola Litexa, LisboaGoogle Scholar
- Santos AM (2010) Life Cycle Assessment of vinho verde (in Portuguese). Master thesis dissertation in Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University, PortoGoogle Scholar
- SimaPro software (2011) website at http://www.pre.nl
- Soares M (1998) Implementação e estudo de vários métodos de determinação do CO2 dissolvido em vinhos (in Portuguese). Licenciatura em Enologia. Universidade de Trás-os-Montes, Vila RealGoogle Scholar