A review of life cycle assessments on wind energy systems

LCA FOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

Abstract

Purpose

Several life cycle assessments (LCAs) of wind energy published in recent years are reviewed to identify methodological differences and underlying assumptions.

Methods

A full comparative analysis of 12 studies were undertaken (ten peer-reviewed papers, one conference paper, and one industry report) regarding six fundamental factors (methods used, energy use accounting, quantification of energy production, energy performance and primary energy, natural resources, and recycling). Each factor is discussed in detail to highlight strengths and shortcomings of various approaches.

Results

Several potential issues are found concerning the way LCA methods are used for assessing energy performance and environmental impact of wind energy, as well as dealing with natural resource use and depletion. The potential to evaluate natural resource use and depletion impacts from wind energy appears to be poorly exploited or elaborated on in the reviewed studies. Estimations of energy performance and environmental impacts are critically analyzed and found to differ significantly.

Conclusions and recommendations

A continued discussion and development of LCA methodology for wind energy and other energy resources are encouraged. Efforts should be made to standardize methods and calculations. Inconsistent use of terminology and concepts among the analyzed studies are found and should be remedied. Different methods are generally used and the results are presented in diverse ways, making it difficult to compare studies with each other, but also with other renewable energy sources.

Keywords

Energy accounting Life cycle assessment Natural resource use Primary energy conversion Wind energy Wind power 

Nomenclature

EPBT

Energy payback time

EROI

Energy return on (energy) investment

I/O

Input–output

LCA

Life cycle assessment

LCI

Life cycle inventory

LCIA

Life cycle impact assessment

LCSA

Life cycle sustainability analysis

PCA

Process chain analysis

PEROI

Primary energy return on (energy) investment

PEPBT

Primary energy payback time

REE

Rare earth elements

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Global Energy Systems, Department of Physics and AstronomyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Global Energy Systems, Department of Earth SciencesUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.MölndalSweden

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