Industrial hemp or eucalyptus paper?

An environmental comparison using life cycle assessment
  • Ricardo da Silva Vieira
  • Paulo Canaveira
  • Ana da Simões
  • Tiago Domingos

DOI: 10.1007/s11367-010-0152-y

Cite this article as:
da Silva Vieira, R., Canaveira, P., da Simões, A. et al. Int J Life Cycle Assess (2010) 15: 368. doi:10.1007/s11367-010-0152-y


Background, aim, and scope

Pulp and paper production is one of the most important Portuguese economic activities. Mostly based on eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), nearly 70% of the pulp produced is exported, mainly to the European Union. The aim of this paper is to compare the environmental impacts of the production of Portuguese printing and writing paper based on eucalyptus with those from the production of paper from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa).

Materials and methods

We have used a life cycle assessment approach to compare both types of paper. The functional unit used was a ton of white printing and writing paper. Data was mostly derived from the Portuguese literature for eucalyptus and from scientific literature for hemp. The impact categories/indicators taken into account were global warming, photochemical oxidant formation (summer smog), acidification, eutrophication, and direct land use.

Results and discussion

Industrial hemp presents higher environmental impacts than eucalyptus paper in all environmental categories analyzed. The main differences are in the crop and the pulp production stages. This is because hemp makes use of higher number of mechanical operations and larger amounts of fertilizer in the former and larger amounts of chemical additives in the latter.


There is scope for improving industrial hemp paper production. We present some suggestions on how to reduce some of the environmental impacts identified for hemp, so that the pulp and paper industry can continue its progress towards a more environmentally friendly paper production.

Recommendations and perspectives

New studies could be based on the alternatives presented throughout the paper for improving hemp paper. Further studies should incorporate analyses on water consumption, soil erosion, soil nutrient depletion, and impacts on biodiversity.


Cannabis sativa Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus Hemp LCA Portugal Pulp and paper 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ricardo da Silva Vieira
    • 1
  • Paulo Canaveira
    • 2
  • Ana da Simões
    • 1
  • Tiago Domingos
    • 1
  1. 1.Environment and Energy Scientific Area, DEM, and IN+, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy ResearchInstituto Superior TécnicoLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.CELPA, Portuguese Paper Industry AssociationLisbonPortugal

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