Advertisement

Pulling the Region into its Orbit? China’s Economic Statecraft in Latin America

  • Wei LiangEmail author
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Abstract

Latin America is a critical region for analyzing China’s economic statecraft. Following the Monroe doctrine, Latin America has long been seen as part of the sphere of U.S. influence. For the purpose of studying the effectiveness of China’s economic statecraft I will focus on two countries that stand on opposite extremes: Brazil and Mexico. Both countries happened to be important target states (strategic partners) of China’s economic statecraft in the region, albeit for different political and strategic goals. In this paper I will compare the different domestic political and economic conditions, interests and institutions in these two countries to explain why China has made greater progress in projecting its economic power through trade and investment to pursue its political goals with Brazil, but has not succeeded in Mexico.

Keywords

Economic statecraft China Latin America Mexico Brazil Trade Investment Foreign policy 

References

  1. 1.
    Albuquerque, J.A.G., and L.A.F. Lima. 2016. Chinese Investment in Brazil: Can it match the relevance of bilateral trade? Asian Perspective 40: 579–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baldwin, D.A. 1985. Economic Statecraft, revised edition. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barrios, R. 2018. China's Latin American Belt and road chimera. The News Lens, July 14. https://international.thenewslens.com/article/99609. Accessed 15 May 2018.
  4. 4.
    Barton, J.R., and J. Rehner. 2018. Neostructuralism through strategic transaction: The geopolinomics of China's dragon doctrine for Latin America. Political Geography 65: 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blanchard, J.F., and N.M. Ripsman. 2008. A political theory of economic statecraft. Foreign Policy Analysis 4 (4): 371–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    China-ECLAC Forum. 2018. “The declaration of the second China-CELAC ministerial Forum” January. http://www.chinacelacforum.org/eng/
  7. 7.
    Chinese government. 2008. Chinese government policy white paper towards Latin America. Access http://www.mfa.gov.cn/chn//gxh/zlb/zcwj/t521016.htm
  8. 8.
    Dussel Peters, E. 2016. Chinese Investment in Mexico: The contemporary context and challenges. Asian Perspective 40: 627–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dussel Peters, E. (ed.). 2017. América Latina y el Caribe y China: Economía, Comercio e_Inversión. Enrique Dussel Peters website. www.redalcchina.org/v21/images/docs/RedALCChina-2017-economia.pdf , accessed March 15, 2018.
  10. 10.
    ECLAC (economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean). 2013. Promoción del comercio y la inversion con China: desafíos y oportunidades en la experiencia de las cámaras empresariales latinoamericanas.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ECLAC. 2015. Latin America and Caribbean with China: Towards a new era of economic cooperation.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ECLAC. 2018. Exploring new forms of cooperation between China and Latin America and the Caribbean. Access https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/43214/1/S1701249_en.pdf
  13. 13.
    Ellis, R.E. 2009. China in Latin America: The what’s and wherefores. Lynne Rienner Press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elson, A. 2014. Dragons Among the Iguanas. Finance & Development, International Monetary Fund 51(4), December. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2014/12/elson.htm
  15. 15.
    Fan, H. 2016. China’s Foreign Policy Logic Towards Latin America. People’s Forum June 16. Access http://www.cssn.cn/zzx/gjzzx_zzx/201606/t20160616_3073037.shtml
  16. 16.
    Ferchen, M. 2011. China–Latin America relations: Long-term boon or short-term boom? The Chinese Journal of International Politics 4 (1): 55–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gallagher, K. P. 2016. The China triangle: Latin America’s China boom and the fate of the Washington consensus. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gallagher, K.P., and A. Irwin. 2015. China’s economic statecraft in Latin America: Evidence from China’s policy banks. The Pacific Review 88 (1): 99–121.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gallagher, K.P., and R. Porzecanski. 2010. The dragon in the room: Chia and the future of Latin American industrialization. Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gonzalez-Vicente, R. 2012. Mapping Chinese mining investment in Latin America: Politics or market? The China Quarterly 209: 35–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hakim, P. 2006. Is Washington losing Latin America? Foreign Affairs 85 (1): 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hearn, A.H. 2012. Harnessing the dragon: Overseas Chinese entrepreneurs in Mexico and Cuba. The China Quarterly 209 (March): 111–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jenkins, R. 2014. Chinese competition and Brazilian exports of manufactures. Oxford Development Studies 42 (3): 395–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li, M. 2017. China’s Economic Statecraft: Co-optation, Cooperation and Coercion, World Scientific.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Long, T. 2015. Latin America confronts the United States: Asymmetry and influence. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mearsheimer, J. 2001. The tragedy of great power politics. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mearsheimer, J., and S. Walt. 2016. The case for offshore balancing: A superior US grand strategy. Foreign Affairs 95 (4): 70–83.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. China's Policy Paper on Latin America and the Caribbean. 2016.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Myers, M., and C. Wise. 2016. The political economy of China-Latin America relations in the new millennium. In Routledge press.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Norris, W.J. 2018. Chinese economic statecraft: Commercial actors, grand strategy, and state control. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Piccone, T. 2016. The geopolitics of China’s rise in Latin America. Brookings, Geoeconomics and global issues no. 2, November. Access https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/the-geopolitics-of-chinas-rise-in-latin-america_ted-piccone.pdf
  32. 32.
    Puyana, A., and A. Costantino. 2015. Chinese land grabbing in Argentina and Colombia. Latin American Perspectives 42 (6): 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ramzy, A. 2014. Dismay from China after Mexico cancels high-speed rail bid. The New York Times, November: 10 http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/11/10/dismay-from-china-after-mexico- cancels-high-speed-rail-bid/.
  34. 34.
    Ray, R. and K. P. Gallagher. 2017. China-Latin America economic bulletin. Boston University global economic governance imitative working paper. https://www.bu.edu/pardeeschool/files/2014/11/Economic-Bulletin.16-17-Bulletin.Draft_.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2018.
  35. 35.
    Reilly, J. C. 2013. China’s economic statecraft: Turning wealth into power. Lowy Institute Analyses.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rosen, D.H. 2003. How China is eating Mexico’s lunch. The International Economy, Spring: 22–25.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Seawright, J. 2016. Multi-method social science: Combining qualitative and quantitative tools. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Singh, J., and T. Nem. 2014. Towards post-neoliberal resource politics? New Political Economy 19 (3): 329–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sutter, R.G. 2008. Chinese foreign relations: Power and policy since the cold war. Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Urdinez, F., and P. Rodrigues. 2017. Trapped in proto-Bipolarism? Brazilian perceptions of an emerging Chinese-American rivalry. Rising Powers Quarterly 1 (2): 105–123.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Urdinez, F., F. Mouron, L.L. Schenoni, and A.J. de Oliveira. 2016. Chinese economic statecraft and US hegemony in Latin America 2003-2014: An empirical analysis. Latin America Politics and Society 58 (4): 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wigell, M. and A. S. Landivar. 2019. China’s economic statecraft in Latin America: Geostrategic implications for the United States. Forthcoming in M. Wigell, S. Scholvin and M. Aaltola (eds.), Geo-Economics and Power Politics in the 21st Century: The Revival of Economic Statecraft. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wise, C., and V.C. Ching. 2018. Conceptualizing China-Latin America relations in the twenty-first century: The boom, the bust and the aftermath. The Pacific Review, December 31 (3): 27.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Xinhua News Agency. 2013. China, Mexico enter comprehensive strategic partnership. June 5. Access http://english.cpc.people.com.cn/206972/206976/8272224.html
  45. 45.
    Xinhua News Agency. 2015. Full text: Vision and actions on jointly building silk road Economic Belt and the 21st-century maritime silk road. March 28. Access http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2015-03/28/c_134105858.htm
  46. 46.
    Xinhua News Agency. 2018. Ministry of Foreign Affairs: China is not directing at any third party in Latin America. January 24. http://www.xinhuanet.com/2018-01/24/c_1122310165.htm. Accessed 15 May 2018.

Copyright information

© Journal of Chinese Political Science/Association of Chinese Political Studies 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of International Policy and ManagementMiddlebury Institute of International Studies at MontereyMontereyUSA

Personalised recommendations