Reforming Service Delivery in China: The Emergence of a Social Innovation Model
- 932 Downloads
In this paper, I find that the political economy of public goods provision by the local government in Shanghai influenced the decision to transition from the existing public service delivery model based on residency, to a social innovation model where the government contracts with non-profits and private firms to provide services at lower costs and experiment with different levels of provision (购买服务). Contracting also forms a bridge between old governance models and new ones, which potentially allow for a process of administrative modernization without social instability. Contracting for public-goods provision is increasing in prevalence not only in Shanghai but also in many other provinces, and is professionalizing participating organizations and providing public goods to vulnerable populations. While this practice is not yet increasing non-profit participation in the policy process, the creation of access channels that are currently operating solely in one direction may at some future date allow groups to participate in relevant policy areas. Contracting public goods might have the potential of significant effects beyond the term of the contract by increasing pluralism in local public policy and generating more demand for transparency and accountability of government services. As such, this is an interesting bellwether for future political change in China.
KeywordsCivil Society Contracting Public Goods/Services Migrant Education Shanghai
- 1.Bentley, Julia Greenwood. 2004. Survival strategies for civil society organizations in China. The International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law.Google Scholar
- 2.Chang, M., M. Memon, and H. Imura. 2003. International experience of public-private partnerships for urban environmental infrastructure, and its application to \China. International Review for Environmental Strategies 4(2): 223–248.Google Scholar
- 3.Chen, Guangyao. 2001. China’s nongovernmental organizations: Status, government policies, and prospects for further development. The International Journal of Not-for-Profit Law 3Google Scholar
- 4.Demographic Statistics Yearbook of China. 1998.Beijing: China Statistical Press.Google Scholar
- 5.Deng, G. 2001. Nonprofit organization evaluation. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press.Google Scholar
- 6.Eberstadt, Nicholas. 2010. Power and population in Asia. Hoover Institution Policy Review 123.Google Scholar
- 7.Fang, Chuang-lin. 2009. The urbanization and urban development in China after the reform and opening up. Economic Geography.Google Scholar
- 8.Guang, Yang. 2009. Climbing out of the ant hill. China Daily, 30 November.Google Scholar
- 9.Han, Jie. 2005. Asian development bank: NGOs will play a bigger role in poverty alleviation. http://www.chinanpo.gov.cn.
- 10.Irish, Leon, Lester Salamon, and Karla Simon. 2009. Outsourcing Social Services to CSOs: Lessons from Abroad. World Bank report; See also .Google Scholar
- 11.Jia, Xijin and Ming Su. 2009. Final report on government procurement of public services: People’s Republic of China. Asian Development Bank report.Google Scholar
- 13.Jing, Yijia and E.S. Savas. 2009. Managing collaborative service delivery: Comparing China and the 731 United States. Public Administration Review.Google Scholar
- 14.Jowitt, K. 1993. New world disorder: The Leninist extinction. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- 15.Kennedy, John James. 2009. Out of the shadows: Identifying the ‘missing girls’ in Shaanxi. working paper.Google Scholar
- 16.Lan, Fang and Jiana Pan. 2011. For migrants, Beijing school bells fall silent. Caixin.Google Scholar
- 18.Lu, Y. 2007. The autonomy of Chinese NGOs: A new perspective. China: An International Journal 5: 203.Google Scholar
- 19.McKinsey Global Institute. 2009. Preparing for China’s urban billion, March.Google Scholar
- 20.Mertha, Andrew. 2009. Fragmented authoritarianism 2.0’: Political pluralization in the Chinese policy process. The China Quarterly.Google Scholar
- 21.Ministry of Finance. 2004. Statistical analysis of national governmental procurement, http://www.ccgp.gov.cn/tjzl/index.htm.
- 22.Ng Tze-Wei. 2011. Opening up takes new form as Hunan official airs views. South China Morning Post, 19 March.Google Scholar
- 23.Pu, Z. 2002. Reform and innovations in governmental procurement in Pudong District. Shanghai Finance and Economics 21: 14–17.Google Scholar
- 24.Roulleau-Berger, Laurence and Shi Lu. 2005. Migrant workers in Shanghai: Inequality, economic enclaves, and the various routes to employment. China Perspectives, March-April.Google Scholar
- 25.Rozelle, Scott, Xiaochen Ma, Linxiu Zhang and Chengfang Liu. 2009. Educating Beijing’s migrants: A profile of the weakest link in China’s education system. Rural Education Action Project, Working Paper 212, September: reapchina.org/reap.stanford.edu.
- 26.Savas, E.S. 2000. Privatization and public-private partnerships. New York: Chatham House.Google Scholar
- 27.Schwartz, J., and S. Shieh (eds.). 2010. State and society responses to social welfare needs in China. London: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
- 28.Tam, W., and D. Yang. 2005. Food safety and the development of regulatory institutions in China. Asian Perspective 29: 5–36.Google Scholar
- 29.Tran, Tini. 2010. China government opens cracks in its culture of secrecy. Washington Post, February.Google Scholar
- 30.Wang, Lihua and Tracey Holland. 2011. In search of educational equity for the migrant children of Shanghai. Comparative Education 1–17.Google Scholar
- 31.Wang, Ming, Lester Salamon, Karla Simon and Leon Irish. 2010. Outsourcing social services to civil society organizations in China and around the world. Peking University Press Google Scholar
- 32.王娟 Wang Ying. 2009. “静安区试点政府购买服务新模式,”劳动报: www.news365.com.cn/wxpd/sh/ja/200908/t20090827_2444664.htm.
- 33.“维稳”新思路:利益表达制度化,实现长治久安. 2010 Southern weekend, 14 April: www.eastasiaforum.org/2010/05/23/costs-of-maintaining-stability-in-china/.
- 35.Yang, D. 2004. Remaking the Chinese Leviathan: Market transition and the politics of governance in China, 310. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- 36.Yin, Jiazhen. 2008. Government perspective on NPO contracting in the Shanghai test case. Democracy and Law Newspaper, 31 March: “政府购买服务被视为事业单位改革与重 建公共服务体系的一剂良药,同时对提高政府管理能力提出了挑战.”Google Scholar
- 37.Yu, K. 2006. Civil society in China: Concepts, classification, and institutional environment. Social Sciences in China 27: 109–122.Google Scholar