“Think entrepreneur - think male”: a task and relationship scale to measure gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship

  • Ana LaguíaEmail author
  • Cristina García-Ael
  • Dominika Wach
  • Juan A. Moriano


Building on the think managerthink male paradigm, this study tested the psychometric properties of an “Entrepreneurial Task and Relationship” (ETR) scale to assess gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship. The sample was composed of 1056 non-entrepreneurs and 178 entrepreneurs. Non-entrepreneurs rated the characteristics of: 1) a successful entrepreneur (n = 348); 2) a successful female entrepreneur (n = 360); and 3) a successful male entrepreneur (n = 348). Entrepreneurs rated to what extent they ascribe themselves entrepreneurial characteristics. Results revealed psychometric adequacy of a two-dimensional 13-item ETR scale to be invariant across different study conditions, non-entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs, as well as male and female participants. As with management, entrepreneurship is perceived as strongly associated with task orientation. The think entrepreneurthink male paradigm applies to entrepreneurship, highlighting the need for more awareness of gender stereotypes in that context. Implications of our study can be derived on entrepreneurship education and towards policy makers and media to promote a non-stereotyped image of entrepreneurship and foster this career option, particularly among women.


Entrepreneurship Gender Stereotypes Female entrepreneurs 



AL holds a predoctoral fellowship from Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED, FPI program) since January 2017.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosure of potential conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of PsychologyUniversidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of PsychologyTechnische Universität DresdenDresdenGermany

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