Advertisement

A systematic literature review on entrepreneurial intentions: citation, thematic analyses, and research agenda

  • Francisco LiñánEmail author
  • Alain Fayolle
Article

Abstract

Entrepreneurial intention is a rapidly evolving field of research. A growing number of studies use entrepreneurial intention as a powerful theoretical framework. However, a substantial part of this research lacks systematization and categorization, and there seems to be a tendency to start anew with every study. Therefore, there is a need to take stock of current knowledge in this field. In this sense, this paper carries out a review of the literature on entrepreneurial intentions. A total of 409 papers addressing entrepreneurial intention, published between 2004 and 2013 (inclusive), have been analyzed. The purpose and contribution of this paper is to offer a clearer picture of the sub-fields in entrepreneurial intention research, by concentrating on two aspects. Firstly, it reviews recent research by means of a citation analysis to categorize the main areas of specialization currently attracting the attention of the academic community. Secondly, a thematic analysis is carried out to identify the specific themes being researched within each category. Despite the large number of publications and their diversity, the present study identifies five main research areas, plus an additional sixth category for a number of new research papers that cannot be easily classified into the five areas. Within those categories, up to twenty-five different themes are recognized. A number of research gaps are singled out within each of these areas of specialization, in order to induce new ways and perspectives in the entrepreneurial intention field of research that may be fruitful in filling these gaps.

Keywords

Entrepreneurial intention Literature review Citation analysis Thematic analysis Research gaps Research agenda New research perspectives 

References

  1. Acedo, F. J., & Casillas, J. C. (2005). Current paradigms in the international management field: an author co-citation analysis. International Business Review, 14(5), 619–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M. M., Ahmad, Z., Shaukat, M. Z., Usman, A., Wasim-ul-Rehman, & Ahmed, N. (2010). Determinants of students’ entrepreneurial career intentions: evidence from business graduates. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15(2), 14–22.Google Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajzen, I. (2012). The theory of planned behavior. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), The handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 438–459). London: SAGE Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Ajzen, I., Csasch, C., & Flood, M. G. (2009). From intentions to behavior: Implementation intention, commitment, and conscientiousness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(6), 1356–1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: a meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 471–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armitage, A., & Keeble-Allen, D. (2008). Undertaking a structured literature review or structuring a literature review: tales from the field. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(2), 103–114.Google Scholar
  9. Avasilcǎi, S., & Hutu, C. A. (2010). Romania: entrepreneurial values and sustainability. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 9(7), 983–992.Google Scholar
  10. Ayob, N., Yap, C. S., Amat Sapuan, D., & Abdul Rashid, M. Z. (2013). Social entrepreneurial intention among business undergraduates: an emerging economy perspective. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 15(3), 249–267.Google Scholar
  11. Bakotic, D., & Kruzic, D. (2010). Students’ perceptions and intentions towards entrepreneurship: the empirical findings from Croatia. The Business Review, Cambridge, 14(2), 209–215.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  14. Barbosa, S. D., Kickul, J., & Smith, B. R. (2008). The road less intended: integrating entrepreneurial cognition and risk in entrepreneurship education. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 16(4), 411–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. BarNir, A., Watson, W. E., & Hutchins, H. M. (2011). Mediation and moderated mediation in the relationship among role models, self-efficacy, entrepreneurial career intention, and gender. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(2), 270–297. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2010.00713.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bergevoet, R. H. M., Ondersteijn, C. J. M., Saatkamp, H. W., Van Woerkum, C. M. J., & Huirne, R. B. M. (2004). Entrepreneurial behaviour of Dutch dairy farmers under a milk quota system: Goals, objectives and attitudes. Agricultural Systems, 80(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhandari, N. C. (2012). Relationship between students’ gender, their own employment, their parents’ employment, and the students’ intention for entrepreneurship. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 15, 133–144.Google Scholar
  18. Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: the case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442–453.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. Bosma, N., Hessels, J., Schutjens, V., Van Praag, M., & Verheul, I. (2012). Entrepreneurship and role models. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33(2), 410–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boyd, N. G., & Vozikis, G. S. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 18, 63–77.Google Scholar
  21. Brandstätter, H. (2011). Personality aspects of entrepreneurship: a look at five meta-analyses. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 222–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brigham, K. H., De Castro, J. O., & Shepherd, D. A. (2007). A person-organization fit model of owner-managers’ cognitive style and organizational demands. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(1), 29–51.Google Scholar
  23. Carey, T. A., Flanagan, D. J., & Palmer, T. B. (2010). An examination of university student entrepreneurial intentions by type of venture. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 15(4), 503–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carr, J. C., & Sequeira, J. M. (2007). Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and entrepreneurial intent: a theory of planned behavior approach. Journal of Business Research, 60(10), 1090–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carsrud, A. L., & Brännback, M. (2011). Entrepreneurial motivations: what do we still need to know? Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 9–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Casillas, J. C., & Acedo, F. J. (2007). Evolution of the intellectual structure of family business literature: a bibliometric study of FBR. Family Business Review, 20(2), 141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Choo, S., & Wong, M. (2006). Entrepreneurial intention: Triggers and barriers to new venture creations in Singapore. Singapore Management Review, 28(2), 47–64.Google Scholar
  28. Cornelius, B., Landström, H., & Persson, O. (2006). Entrepreneurial Studies: The dynamic research front of a developing social science. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 30(3), 375–398. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00125.x.Google Scholar
  29. Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dabic, M., Daim, T., Bayraktaroglu, E., Novak, I., & Basic, M. (2012). Exploring gender differences in attitudes of university students towards entrepreneurship: an international survey. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 4(3), 316–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davey, T., Plewa, C., & Struwig, M. (2011). Entrepreneurship perceptions and career intentions of international students. Education and Training, 53(5), 335–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Clercq, D., Honig, B., & Martin, B. (2013). The roles of learning orientation and passion for work in the formation of entrepreneurial intention. International Small Business Journal, 31(6), 652–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Pillis, E., & Reardon, K. K. (2007). The influence of personality traits and persuasive messages on entrepreneurial intention: a cross-cultural comparison. Career Development International, 12(4), 382–396. doi: 10.1108/13620430710756762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Degeorge, J. M., & Fayolle, A. (2008). Is entrepreneurial intention stable through time? First insights from a sample of French students. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 5(1), 7–27. doi: 10.1504/IJESB.2008.015951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Devonish, D., Alleyne, P., Charles-Soverall, W., Marshall, A. Y., & Pounder, P. (2010). Explaining entrepreneurial intentions in the Caribbean. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 16(2), 149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. do Paco, A. M. F., Ferreira, J. M., Raposo, M., Rodrigues, R. G., & Dinis, A. (2011). Behaviours and entrepreneurial intention: empirical findings about secondary students. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 9(1), 20–38. doi: 10.1007/s10843-010-0071-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Doern, R. (2009). Investigating barriers to SME growth and development in transition environments a critique and suggestions for developing the methodology. International Small Business Journal, 27(3), 275–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Douglas, E. J. (2013). Reconstructing entrepreneurial intentions to identify predisposition for growth. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(5), 633–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Drnovsek, M., & Erikson, T. (2005). Competing models of entrepreneurial Intentions. Economic and Business Review for Central and South - Eastern Europe, 7(1), 55–71.Google Scholar
  40. Engle, R. L., Dimitriadi, N., Gavidia, J. V., Schlaegel, C., Delanoe, S., Alvarado, I., He, X., Buame, S., & Wolff, B. (2010). Entrepreneurial intent: a twelve-country evaluation of Ajzen’s model of planned behavior. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 16(1), 36–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Engle, R. L., Schlaegel, C., & Dimitriadi, N. (2011). Institutions and entrepreneurial intent: a cross-country study. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 16(02), 227–250. doi: 10.1142/S1084946711001811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Farashah, A. D. (2013). The process of impact of entrepreneurship education and training on entrepreneurship perception and intention: study of educational system of Iran. Education and Training, 55(8/9), 868–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fayolle, A., & Gailly, B. (2009). Évaluation d’une formation en entrepreneuriat: predispositions et impact sur l’intention d’entreprendre. Management, 12(3), 175–203.Google Scholar
  44. Fayolle, A., & Gailly, B. (2013). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention: Hysteresis and persistence. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(1), 75–93. 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fayolle, A., & Liñán, F. (2014). The future of research on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 663–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., & Lassas-Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes: a new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(9), 701–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fayolle, A., Basso, O., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2011). Entrepreneurial commitment and new venture creation: a conceptual exploration. In K. Hindle & K. Klyver (Eds.), Handbook of research on new venture creation (pp. 160–182). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  48. Fini, R., Grimaldi, R., Marzocchi, G. L., & Sobrero, M. (2012). The determinants of corporate entrepreneurial intention within small and newly established firms. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36(2), 387–414. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2010.00411.x.Google Scholar
  49. Fitzsimmons, J. R., & Douglas, E. J. (2011). Interaction between feasibility and desirability in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(4), 431–440. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2010.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Forster, F., & Grichnik, D. (2013). Social entrepreneurial intention formation of corporate volunteers. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 4(2), 153–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Frank, H., Lueger, M., & Korunka, C. (2007). The significance of personality in business start-up intentions, start-up realization and business success. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19(3), 227–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Franke, N., & Luthje, C. (2004). Entrepreneurial intentions of business students - a benchmarking study. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 1(3), 269–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Frese, M. (2009). Toward a psychology of entrepreneurship - an action theory perspective. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 5(6), 437–496.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gartner, W. B. (2010). A new path to the waterfall: a narrative on a use of entrepreneurial narrative. International Small Business Journal, 28(1), 6–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gird, A., & Bagraim, J. J. (2008). The theory of planned behaviour as predictor of entrepreneurial intent amongst final-year university students. South African Journal of Psychology, 38(4), 711–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions - strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54(7), 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gregoire, D. A., & Shepherd, D. A. (2012). Technology-market combinations and the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities: an investigation of the opportunity-individual nexus. Academy of Management Journal, 55(4), 753–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Guerrero, M., Rialp, J., & Urbano, D. (2008). The impact of desirability and feasibility on entrepreneurial intentions: a structural equation model. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(1), 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gundolf, K., & Filser, M. (2013). Management research and religion: a citation analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 112(1), 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., & Bhawe, N. M. (2008). The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial Intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1053–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., Wasti, S. A., & Sikdar, A. (2009). The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(2), 397–417.Google Scholar
  62. Haase, H., & Lautenschlager, A. (2011). The ‘teachability Dilemma’ of entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(2), 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hadjimanolis, A., & Poutziouris, P. (2011). Family business background, perceptions of barriers, and entrepreneurial intentions in Cyprus. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 3(2), 168–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Haus, I., Steinmetz, H., Isidor, R., & Kabst, R. (2013). Gender effects on entrepreneurial intention: a meta-analytical structural equation model. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 5(2), 130–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hayton, J. C., & Cholakova, M. (2012). The role of affect in the creation and intentional pursuit of entrepreneurial ideas. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36(1), 41–68.Google Scholar
  66. Hechavarria, D. M., Renko, M., & Matthews, C. H. (2012). The nascent entrepreneurship hub: goals, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and start-up outcomes. Small Business Economics, 39(3), 685–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hessels, J., Grilo, I., Thurik, R., & Zwan, P. (2011). Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 21(3), 447–471. doi: 10.1007/s00191-010-0190-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hirschi, A. (2013). Career decision making, stability, and actualization of career intentions: the case of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Career Assessment, 21(4), 555–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hmieleski, K. M., & Corbett, A. C. (2006). Proclivity for improvisation as a predictor of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(1), 45–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Iakovleva, T., Kolvereid, L., & Stephan, U. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions in developing and developed countries. Education and Training, 53(5), 353–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jaén, I., & Liñán, F. (2013). Work values in a changing economic environment: the role of entrepreneurial capital. International Journal of Manpower, 34(8), 939–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jakopec, A., Krecar, I. M., & Susanj, Z. (2013). Predictors of entrepreneurial intentions of students of economics. Studia Psychologica, 55(4), 289–297.Google Scholar
  73. Jones, M. V., Coviello, N., & Tang, Y. K. (2011). International. Entrepreneurship research (1989–2009): A domain ontology and thematic analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(4), 632–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–291.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kautonen, T., Van Gelderen, M., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2013). Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: a test of the theory of planned behaviour. Applied Economics, 45(6), 697–707. doi: 10.1080/00036846.2011.610750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kessler, A., & Frank, H. (2009). Nascent entrepreneurship in a longitudinal perspective: the impact of person, environment, resources and the founding process on the decision to start business activities. International Small Business Journal, 27(6), 720–742. doi: 10.1177/0266242609344363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kibler, E. (2013). Formation of entrepreneurial intentions in a regional context. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 25(3/4), 293–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kickul, J., Gundry, L. K., Barbosa, S. D., & Simms, S. (2010). One style does not fit all: The role of cognitive style in entrepreneurship education. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 9(1), 36–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kolvereid, L. (1996a). Organizational employment versus self-employment: reasons for career intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 20(3), 23–31.Google Scholar
  80. Kolvereid, L. (1996b). Prediction of employment status choice intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 21(1), 47–57.Google Scholar
  81. Kolvereid, L., & Isaksen, E. (2006). New business start-up and subsequent entry into self-employment. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(6), 866–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kozan, M. K., Öksoy, D., & Özsoy, O. (2006). Growth plans of small businesses in Turkey: Individual and environmental influences. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(1), 114–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kraus, S., Rigtering, J. C., Hughes, M., & Hosman, V. (2012). Entrepreneurial orientation and the business performance of SMEs: a quantitative study from the Netherlands. Review of Managerial Science, 6(2), 161–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kraus, S., Filser, M., O’Dwyer, M., & Shaw, E. (2014). Social entrepreneurship: an exploratory citation analysis. Review of Managerial Science, 8(2), 275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kristiansen, S., & Indarti, N. (2004). Entrepreneurial Intention among Indonesian and Norwegian students. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 12(1), 55–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Krueger, N. F. (2007). What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(1), 123–138.ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Krueger, N. F. (2009). Entrepreneurial intentions are dead: Long live entrepreneurial intentions. In A. L. Carsrud & M. Brannback (Eds.), Understanding the entrepreneurial mind (pp. 51–72). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Krueger, N. F., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 19(3), 91–104.Google Scholar
  89. Krueger, N. F., & Carsrud, A. L. (1993). Entrepreneurial intentions: applying the theory of planned behavior. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 5(4), 315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Krueger, N. F., & Day, M. (2010). Looking forward, looking backward: From entrepreneurial cognition to neuroentrepreneurship. In Z. J. Acs & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of entrepreneurship research. An interdisciplinary survey and introduction (2nd ed., pp. 321–358). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5–6), 411–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kuckertz, A., & Wagner, M. (2010). The influence of sustainability orientation on entrepreneurial intentions - investigating the role of business experience. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(5), 524–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lanero, A., Vázquez, J. L., Gutiérrez, P., & García, M. P. (2011). The impact of entrepreneurship education in European universities: an intention-based approach analyzed in the Spanish area. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 8(2), 111–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Laspita, S., Breugst, N., Heblich, S., & Patzelt, H. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(4), 414–435. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2011.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lee, S. H., & Wong, P. K. (2004). An exploratory study of technopreneurial intentions: a career anchor perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(1), 7–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Leung, K.-Y., Lo, C.-T., Sun, H., & Wong, K.-F. (2012). Factors influencing engineering students’ intention to participate in on-campus entrepreneurial activities. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 15, 1–20.ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Li, W. (2007). Ethnic entrepreneurship: studying Chinese and Indian Students in the United States. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 12(4), 449–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593–617.Google Scholar
  99. Liñán, F., & Santos, F. J. (2007). Does social capital affect entrepreneurial intentions? International Advances in Economic Research, 13(4), 443–453.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Liñán, F., Rodríguez-Cohard, J. C., & Rueda-Cantuche, J. M. (2011a). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels: a role for education. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(2), 195–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Liñán, F., Urbano, D., & Guerrero, M. (2011b). Regional variations in entrepreneurial cognitions: start-up intentions of university students in Spain. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23(3&4), 187–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lo, C. M., & Wang, J. R. (2007). The Entrepreneurial Intention under Environmental Uncertainty. Journal of Accounting, Finance & Management Strategy, 3(1), 21–43.Google Scholar
  103. Loras, J., & Vizcaino, J. (2013). Is technical training an obstacle to entrepreneurship? Management Decision, 51(5), 999–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lorz, M., Mueller, S., & Volery, T. (2013). Entrepreneurship education: a systematic review of the methods in impact studies. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 21(2), 123–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lourenço, F., & Jones, O. (2006). Developing entrepreneurship education: comparing traditional and alternative teaching approaches. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 4(1), 111–140.Google Scholar
  106. Manolova, T. S., Edelman, L. F., Brush, C. G., & Rotefoss, B. (2012). Properties of emerging organizations: empirical evidence from Norway. Small Business Economics, 39(3), 763–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Marques, C. S., Ferreira, J. J., Gomes, D. N., & Rodrigues, R. G. (2012). Entrepreneurship education: how psychological, demographic and behavioural factors predict the entrepreneurial intention. Education and Training, 54(8), 657–672.Google Scholar
  108. Martin, B. C., McNally, J. J., & Kay, M. J. (2013). Examining the formation of human capital in entrepreneurship: a meta-analysis of entrepreneurship education outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(2), 211–224. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2012.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mathieu, C., & St-Jean, T. (2013). Entrepreneurial personality: the role of narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(5), 527–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Matiz-Bulla, F. J., & Hormiga, E. (2011). Highly-skilled Colombian immigrants in Spain. Education & Training, 53(5), 448–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. McGee, J. E., Peterson, M., Mueller, S. L., & Sequeira, J. M. (2009). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy: refining the measure. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(4), 965–988.Google Scholar
  112. Moriano, J. A., Gorgievski, M., Laguna, M., Stephan, U., & Zarafshani, K. (2012). A cross-cultural approach to understanding entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Career Development, 39(2), 162–185. doi: 10.1177/0894845310384481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Nabi, G., & Holden, R. (2008). Graduate entrepreneurship: intentions, education and training. Education and Training, 50(7), 545–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Nabi, G., & Liñán, F. (2013). Considering business start-up in recession time: the role of risk perception and economic context in shaping the entrepreneurial intent. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 19(6), 633–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Nabi, G., Holden, R., & Walmsley, A. (2006). Graduate career-making and business start-up: a literature review. Education and Training, 48(5), 373–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nasurdin, A. M., Ahmad, N. H., & Lin, C. E. (2009). Examining a model of entrepreneurial intention among Malaysians using SEM procedure. European Journal of Scientific Research, 33(2), 365–373.Google Scholar
  117. North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  118. O’Neill, P., & McGuirk, P. (2014). Qualitative methods in socio-spatial research. In R. Stimson (Ed.), Handbook of research methods and applications in spatially integrated social science (pp. 177–191). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  119. Oosterbeek, H., van Praag, M., & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation. European Economic Review, 54(3), 442–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Oser, F., & Volery, T. (2012). «Sense of failure» and «sense of success» among entrepreneurs: the identification and promotion of neglected twin entrepreneurial competencies. Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, 4(1), 27–44.Google Scholar
  121. Ozgen, E., & Minsky, B. D. (2013). Why some college students engage in entrepreneurial activities while others do not. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 16, 45–58.Google Scholar
  122. Packham, G., Jones, P., Miller, C., Pickernell, D., & Thomas, B. (2010). Attitudes towards entrepreneurship education: a comparative analysis. Education and Training, 52(8), 568–586.Google Scholar
  123. Parente, R., & Feola, R. (2013). Entrepreneurial intent and entrepreneurial commitment of young researchers. International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 12(2), 155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pihie, Z. A. L. (2009). Entrepreneurship as a career choice: an analysis of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions of university students. European Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2), 338–349.Google Scholar
  125. Pihie, Z. A. L., & Bagheri, A. (2009). Developing future entrepreneurs: a need to improve science students’ entrepreneurial participation. International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, 9(2), 45–57.Google Scholar
  126. Pittaway, L., & Cope, J. (2007). Entrepreneurship education - a systematic review of the evidence. International Small Business Journal, 25(5), 479–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Bachrach, D., & Podsakoff, N. (2005). The influence of management journals in the 1980s and 1990s. Strategic Management Journal, 26, 473–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Prabhu, V. P., McGuire, S. J., Drost, E. A., & Kwong, K. K. (2012). Proactive personality and entrepreneurial intent: Is entrepreneurial self-efficacy a mediator or moderator? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 18(5), 559–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Prieto, L. C. (2011). The influence of proactive personality on social entrepreneurial intentions among African-American and Hispanic undergraduate students: the moderating role of hope. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 17(2), 77–96.Google Scholar
  130. Quan, X. (2012). Prior experience, social network, and levels of entrepreneurial intentions. Management Research Review, 35(10), 945–957.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Radu, M., & Loué, C. (2008). Motivational impact of role models as moderated by “ideal” vs. “ought self-guides” identifications. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 16(4), 441–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Radu, M., & Redien-Collot, R. (2008). The social representation of entrepreneurs in the French press: desirable and feasible models? International Small Business Journal, 26(3), 259–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Renko, M., Kroeck, K. G., & Bullough, A. (2012). Expectancy theory and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 39(3), 667–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rideout, E. C., & Gray, D. O. (2013). Does entrepreneurship education really work? a review and methodological critique of the empirical literature on the effects of university-based entrepreneurship education. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 329–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rigtering, J. C., Kraus, S., Eggers, F., & Jensen, S. H. (2014). A comparative analysis of the entrepreneurial orientation/growth relationship in service firms and manufacturing firms. Service Industries Journal, 34(4), 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2003). Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods, 15(1), 85–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Saeed, R., Nayyab, H. H., Rashied, H., Lodhi, R. N., Musawar, S., & Iqbal, A. (2013). Who is the most potential entrepreneur? A case of Pakistan. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 17(9), 1307–1315.Google Scholar
  138. Salhi, B., & Boujelbene, Y. (2013). La formation de l’intention entrepreneuriale des étudiants suivant des programmes en entrepreneuriat. La Revue Gestion et Organisation, 5(1), 40–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sanchez, J. C. (2013). The impact of an entrepreneurship education program on entrepreneurial competencies and intention. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 447–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001). Causation and effectuation: toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of Management Review, 26, 243–263.Google Scholar
  141. Schlaegel, C., He, X., & Engle, R. L. (2013). The direct and indirect influences of national culture on entrepreneurial intentions: a fourteen nation study. International Journal of Management, 30(2), 597–609.Google Scholar
  142. Schoon, I., & Duckworth, K. (2012). Who becomes an entrepreneur? Early life experiences as predictors of entrepreneurship. Developmental Psychology, 48(6), 1719–1726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Segal, G., Borgia, D., & Schoenfeld, J. (2005). The motivation to become an entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 11(1), 42–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Shahidi, N. (2012). Les jeunes entrepreneurs nécessitent-ils un accompagnement particulier? Le cas français. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 25(1), 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Shapero, A. (1984). The entrepreneurial event. In C. A. Kent (Ed.), The environment for entrepreneurship. Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  146. Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72–90). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  147. Shaver, K. G., & Scott, L. R. (1991). Person, process, choice: the psychology of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16(2), 23–45.Google Scholar
  148. Shinnar, R. S., Giacomin, O., & Janssen, F. (2012). Entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions: the role of gender and culture. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36(3), 465–493. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00509.x.Google Scholar
  149. Shook, C. L., Priem, R. L., & McGee, J. E. (2003). Venture creation and the enterprising individual: a review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 29(3), 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Smith, I. H., & Woodworth, W. P. (2012). Developing social entrepreneurs and social innovators: a social identity and self-efficacy approach. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3), 390–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Solesvik, M. Z. (2013). Entrepreneurial motivations and intentions: investigating the role of education major. Education and Training, 55(3), 253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Solesvik, M. Z., Westhead, P., Kolvereid, L., & Matlay, H. (2012). Student intentions to become self-employed: the Ukrainian context. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(3), 441–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sommer, L., & Haug, M. (2011). Intention as a cognitive antecedent to international entrepreneurship-understanding the moderating roles of knowledge and experience. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(1), 111–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(4), 566–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Stenholm, P. (2011). Innovative behavior as a moderator of growth intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 49(2), 233–251.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Strobl, A., Kronenberg, C., & Peters, M. (2012). Entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions: assessing gender specific differences. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 15(4), 452–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sweida, G. L., & Reichard, R. J. (2013). Gender stereotyping effects on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and high-growth entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(2), 296–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Tang, J. (2008). Environmental munificence for entrepreneurs: entrepreneurial alertness and commitment. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 14(3), 128–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tegtmeier, S. (2012). Empirical implications for promoting students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 20(2), 151–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Thompson, E. R. (2009). Individual entrepreneurial intent: Construct clarification and development of an internationally reliable metric. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 669–694.Google Scholar
  161. Thorpe, R., Holt, R., MacPherson, A., & Pittaway, L. (2005). Using knowledge within small and medium-sized firms: a systematic review of the evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(4), 257–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Tornikoski, E. T., & Kautonen, T. (2009). Enterprise as sunset career? Entrepreneurial intentions in the ageing population. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 8(2), 278–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Tounés, A. (2006). L’intention entrepreneuriale des étudiants: le cas français. La Revue des Sciences de Gestion : Direction et Gestion, 41(219), 57–65.Google Scholar
  164. Tranfield, D., Denyer, D., & Smart, P. (2003). Towards a methodology for developing evidence‐informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management, 14(3), 207–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Tumasjan, A., Welpe, I., & Spörrle, M. (2013). Easy now, desirable later: the moderating role of temporal distance in opportunity evaluation and exploitation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 37(4), 859–888.Google Scholar
  166. Turker, D., & Selcuk, S. S. (2009). Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students? Journal of European Industrial Training, 33(2), 142–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Urban, B. (2012). Applying a metacognitive perspective to entrepreneurship: empirical evidence on the influence of metacognitive dimensions on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 20(2), 203–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Uygun, R., & Kasimoglu, M. (2013). The emergence of entrepreneurial intentions in indigenous entrepreneurs: the role of personal background on the antecedents of intentions. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(5), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Van Gelderen, M., Brand, M., Van Praag, M., Bodewes, W., Poutsma, E., & Van Gils, A. (2008). Explaining entrepreneurial intentions by means of the theory of planned behaviour. Career Development International, 13(6), 538–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Veciana, J. M., Aponte, M., & Urbano, D. (2005). University students’ attitudes towards entrepreneurship: a two countries comparison. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(2), 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. von Graevenitz, G., Harhoff, D., & Weber, R. (2010). The effects of entrepreneurship education. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 76(1), 90–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Walker, J. K., Jeger, M., & Kopecki, D. (2013). The role of perceived abilities, subjective norm and intentions in entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 22(2), 181–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Wang, Y., & Verzat, C. (2011). Generalist or specific studies for engineering entrepreneurs?: comparison of French engineering students’ trajectories in two different curricula. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 18(2), 366–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Watchravesringkan, K. T., Hodges, N. N., Yurchisin, J., Hegland, J., Karpova, E., Marcketti, S., & Yan, R.-N. (2013). Modeling entrepreneurial career intentions among undergraduates: an examination of the moderating role of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 41(3), 325–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Welter, F. (2011). Contextualizing entrepreneurship - conceptual challenges and ways forward. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 35(1), 165–184.Google Scholar
  176. Werner, A., Gast, J., & Kraus, S. (2014). The effect of working time preferences and fair wage perceptions on entrepreneurial intentions among employees. Small Business Economics, 43124, doi: 10.1007/s11187-013-9528-2.
  177. Williams, D. W., Zorn, M. L., Crook, T. R., & Combs, J. G. (2013). Passing the torch: factors influencing transgenerational intent in family firms. Family Relations, 62(3), 415–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 387–406.Google Scholar
  179. Xi, J. M., Kraus, S., Filser, M., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2013). Mapping the field of family business research: past trends and future directions. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1–20, doi:  10.1007/s11365-013-0286-z.
  180. Xiao, L., Larson, M., & North, D. (2013). Influence of entrepreneurial teams on the growth orientation of earlystage high-tech SMEs in China: Multiple measures of performance. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 14(1), 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Yemini, M., & Yeheskel, O. (2011). Not born here-evaluation of the country of origin effect on the entrepreneurial intentions of Israeli engineering students. International Journal of Learning, 17(10), 329–342.Google Scholar
  182. Zafar, M. J., Yasin, G., & Ijaz, M. (2012). Social networking a source for developing entrepreneurial intentions among entrepreneurs: a case of Multan. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2(8), 1072–1084.Google Scholar
  183. Zahra, S. A., & Wright, M. (2011). Entrepreneurship’s next act. Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(4), 67.83.Google Scholar
  184. Zampetakis, L. A., Kafetsios, K., Bouranta, N., Dewett, T., & Moustakis, V. S. (2009). On the relationship between emotional intelligence and entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 15(6), 595–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Zampetakis, L. A., Gotsi, M., Andriopoulos, C., & Moustakis, V. (2011). Creativity and entrepreneurial intention in young people: empirical insights from business school students. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 12(3), 189–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zellweger, T., Sieger, P., & Halter, F. (2011). Should I stay or should I go? Career choice intentions of students with family business background. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(5), 521–536. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2010.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhao, H., Hills, G. E., & Siebert, S. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1265–1272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2010). The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Management, 36(2), 381–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department Applied EconomicsUniversity of SevilleSevilleSpain
  2. 2.EMLYON Business SchoolEcully CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations