Advertisement

From feminism to FemInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state

  • Helene AhlEmail author
  • Karin Berglund
  • Katarina Pettersson
  • Malin Tillmar
Article

Abstract

Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

Keywords

Women’s entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship policy Entrepreneurialism Gender State feminism FemInc.ism 

References

  1. Achtenhagen, L., & Tillmar, M. (2013). Studies on women’s entrepreneurship from Nordic Countries and beyond: Editorial. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 5(1), 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahl, H. (2006). Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 30(5), 595–621.Google Scholar
  3. Ahl, H. (2007). Gender stereotypes. In S. Clegg & J. Bailey (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies (pp. 544–547). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Ahl, H. (2011). Politik för kvinnors företagande i Sverige och USA [Policy for women’s entrepreneurship in Sweden and in the USA]. In E. Blomberg, G. Hedlund, & M. Wottle (Eds.), Kvinnors företagande - mål eller medel? (pp. 292–322). Stockholm: SNS Förlag.Google Scholar
  5. Ahl, H., & Marlow, S. (2012). Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism and entrepreneurship: advancing debate to escape a dead end? Organization, 19(5), 543–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahl, H., &Nelson, T. (2014) Howpolicy positionswomen entrepreneurs: A comparative analysis of state discoursein Sweden and the United States, Journal of Business Venturing (2014),http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2014.08.002
  7. Al-Dajani, H., & Marlow, S. (2014). Displaced women’s entrepreneurship as an articulation of political activism. Paper presented at the Diana International Research Conference 2014, Stockholm,Google Scholar
  8. Alsos, G., Isaksen, E. J., & Ljunggren, E. (2006). New venture financing and subsequent business growth in men- and women led businesses. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 30(5), 667–686.Google Scholar
  9. Alsos, G., & Ljunggren, E. (1998). Does the business start-up process differ by gender? A longitudinal study of nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 6(4), 347–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alsos, G., Steen Jensen, R., & Ljunggren, E. (2010). Gender and entrepreneurship: revealing constructions and underlying processes - the case of Norway. In C. Brush, A. De Bruin, E. J. Gatewood, & C. Henry (Eds.), Women entrepreneurs and the global environment for growth (pp. 40–56). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  11. Anxo, D., Ericson, T., & Mångs, A. (2011). Kvinnors företagande - en strategi för att lösa livspusslet? [Women’s entrepreneurship - a way to solve the life puzzle?]. In E. Blomberg, G. Hedlund, & M. Wottle (Eds.), Kvinnors företagande - mål eller medel? (pp. 266–289). Stockholm: SNS Förlag.Google Scholar
  12. Arenius, P., & Autio, E. (2006). Financing of small businesses: are Mars and Venus more alike than different? Venture Capital, 8(02), 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arenius, P., & Kovalainen, A. (2006). Similarities and differences across the factors associated with women’s self-employment preference in the Nordic countries. International Small Business Journal, 24(1), 31–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bartky, S. L. (1990). Femininity and domination; studies in the phenomenology of oppression. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Berggren, H., & Trägårdh, L. (2006). Är svenskan människa? Gemenskap och oberoende i det moderna Sverige [Is the Swede human? Solidarity and independence in modern Sweden]. Stockholm: Norstedts.Google Scholar
  16. Berglund, K. (2012a). Friends, Feelings, and Fantasy: the entrepreneurial approach as conceptualized by preschool teachers. In K. Berglund, B. Johannisson, & B. Schwartz (Eds.), Societal entrepreneurship: Positioning, Penetrating, Promoting (pp. 191–213). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berglund, K. (2012b). The queer potential of women entrepreneurs. Paper presented at the Gender, Work and Organization conference, Keele, UK, June 27–29, 2012Google Scholar
  18. Berglund, K. (2012c). Jakten på entreprenörer: om öppningar och låsningar i entreprenörskapsdiskursen [The hunt for entrepreneurs – cracks and deadlocks in the entrepreneurship discourse]. Stockholm: Santérus Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  19. Berglund, K. (2013). Fighting against all odds: Entrepreneurship education as employability training. Ephemera, 13(4), 717–735.Google Scholar
  20. Berglund, K., & Granat Thorslund, J. (2010). The perfect M(is)s Match: promoting women’s entrepreneurship - business as ususal or an arena for subversive practices? Paper presented at the Gender, Work and Organization conference, Keele, UK, June 27–29, 2012Google Scholar
  21. Berglund, K., & Granat Thorslund, J. (2012). Innovative policies? Entrepreneurship and innovation policy from a gender perspective. In S. Andersson, K. Berglund, E. Gunnarsson, & E. Sundin (Eds.), Promoting Innovation: Policies, practices and procedure. Vinnova: Stockholm.Google Scholar
  22. Berglund, K., & Holmgren, C. (2008). Entreprenörskap och Ordning och reda…hur hänger de(t) ihop? [Entrepreneurship and law and order - how do they mix?]. In K. Berglund & A. W. Johansson (Eds.), Arenor för entreprenörskap (pp. 32–51). Örebro: Forum för småföretagsforskning FSF.Google Scholar
  23. Berglund, K., & Holmgren, C. (2013). Entrepreneurship education in policy and practice - On tensions and conflicts in processes of implementing entrepreneurship education. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 5(1), 9–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Berglund, K., & Johansson, A. W. (2007). Entrepreneurship, Discourses and Conscientization in Processes of Regional Development. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19(6), 499–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bjursell, C., & Melin, L. (2011). Proactive and reactive plots: Narratives in entrepreneurial identity construction. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 3(3), 218–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bourne, K. A. (2010). The paradox of gender equality: An entrepreneurial case study from Sweden. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 10–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Braidford, P., Stone, I., & Tesfaye, B. (2013). Gender, disadvantage and enterprise support - lessons from women’s business centers in North America and Europe. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 20(1), 143–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bruni, A., Gherardi, S., & Poggio, B. (2004). Entrepreneur-mentality, gender and the study of women entrepreneurs. Organizational Change Management, 17(3), 256–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brush, C. G., de Bruin, A., & Welter, F. (2009). A gender aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 8–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Calás, M. B., Smircich, L., & Bourne, K. A. (2009). Extending the Boundaries: Reframing “Entrepreneurship as Social Change‴ Through Feminist Perspectives. The Academy of Management Review, 34(3), 552–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Callerstig, A.-C. (2012). Public servants as agents for change in gender mainstreaming – The complexity of practice. In S. Andersson, K. Berglund, E. Gunnarsson, & E. Sundin (Eds.), Promoting Innovation: Policies, practices and procedures (pp. 239–269). Stockholm: Vinnova.Google Scholar
  32. Cantzler, I., & Leijon, S. (2007). Team-oriented women entrepreneurs: a way to modern management. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 14(4), 732–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Czarniawska, B. (1997). A four times told tale: Combining narrative and scientific knowledge in organization studies. Organization, 4(1), 7–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dahl, H. M. (2012). Neo-liberalism meets the nordic welfare-state: Gaps and silences. NORA Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 20(4), 283–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dalborg, C., von Friedrichs, Y., & Wincent, J. (2012). Beyond the numbers: Qualitative growth in women’s businesses. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 4(3), 289–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dareblom, J. (2005). Prat, politik och praktik: om individers möten med strukturer i en kommunal satsning på kvinnors företagande [Talk, politics and practice: individuals facing structures in a project for women’s entrepreneurship]. Stockholm: Handelshögskolan.Google Scholar
  37. de Bruin, A., Brush, C. G., & Welter, F. (2007). Advancing a framework for coherent research on women’s entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 323–339.Google Scholar
  38. Dempsey, S. E., & Sanders, M. L. (2010). Meaningful work? Nonprofit marketization and work/life imbalance in popular autobiographies of social entrepreneurship. Organization, 17(4), 437–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. du Gay, P. (2004). Against Enterprise (but not against ‘enterprise’ for that would be silly). Organization, 11(1), 37–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. DuRietz, A., & Henrekson, M. (2000). Testing the female underperformance hypothesis. Small Business Economics, 14(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Edenheim, S., & Rönnblom, M. (2012). Tracking down politics and power in neo-liberal society. NORA Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 20(4), 227–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eikenberry, A. M., & Kluver, J. D. (2004). The marketization of the nonprofit sector: Civil society at risk? Public Administration Review, 64(2), 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Eriksson, P., Henttonen, E., & Merilainen, S. (2008a). The growth strategies of women-controlled SME’s: a case study on FInnish software companies. International Journal of Business Excellence, 1(4), 434–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eriksson, P., Henttonen, E., & Merilainen, S. (2008b). Managerial work and gender - ethnography of cooperative relationships in small software companies. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 24(4), 354–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Eriksson, P., Katila, S., & Niskanen, M. (2009). Gender and sources of finance in Finnish SME’s: a contextual view. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(3), 176–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Foss, L., & Ljunggren, E. (2006). Women’s entrepreneurship in Norway: recent trends and future challenges. In C. Brush, N. M. Carter, E. J. Gatewood, P. Greene, & M. Hart (Eds.), Growth oriented women entrepreneurs and their businesses: a global research perspective (pp. 154–183). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  47. Fraser, N. (2009). Feminism, capitalism and the cunning of history. New Left Review, 56, 97–117.Google Scholar
  48. Friberg, T. (1996). Potential businesswomen in the public sector. In Nutek (Ed.), Aspects of women’s entrepreneurship Nutek B 1996:10 (pp. 179–202). Stockholm: Nutek.Google Scholar
  49. Fältholm, Y., Abrahamsson, L., & Källhammer, E. (2010). Academic entrepreneurship: gendered discourses and ghettos. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 5(1), 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gatewood, E. J., Greene, P. G., & Thulin, P. (2014). Sweden and the United States: Differing entrepreneurial conditions require different policies. In P. Braunerhjelm (Ed.), 20 years of Entrepreneurship Research (pp. 95–108). Stockholm: Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.Google Scholar
  51. Gawell, M. (2014). Soci(et)al entrepreneurship and different forms of social enterprises. In A. Lundström, Y. von Friedrichs, E. Sundin, & C. Zhou (Eds.), Social Entrepreneurship: Creating New Ideas for the Future. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  52. Hansson, A., Stridh, K., Blomkvist, M., & Ulvenblad, P. (2010). A gender perspective on national measures promoting innovation and entrepreneurship. Paper presented at the Gender, Work and Organization conference, Keele, UKGoogle Scholar
  53. Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Hedfeldt, M. (2008). Företagande kvinnor i bruksort: arbetsliv och vardagsliv i samspel [Enterprising women in industrial communities: interplay of working life and everyday life]. Örebro: Örebro universitet.Google Scholar
  55. Hedfeldt, M. (2011). Verkliga och imaginära företagande kvinnor [Real and imaginary enterprising women]. In E. Blomberg, G. Hedlund, & M. Wottle (Eds.), Kvinnors företagande - mål eller medel? [Women’s entrepreneurship - means or ends?] (pp. 114–138). Stockholm: SNS.Google Scholar
  56. Henry, C., Foss, L., & Ahl, H. (2013). Parallel Lines? A Thirty-Year Review of Methodological Approaches in Gender and Entrepreneurship Research Paper presented at the ISBE Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Cardiff, UK, Nov 2013Google Scholar
  57. Hernes, H. (1987). Welfare state and women power. Essays in state feminism. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Holmquist, C. (2002). Integration mellan genus- och entreprenörskapsteori - är det möjligt och/eller önskvärt? [Integrating gender and entrepreneruship theory – is it possible and/or desirable?]. In C. Holmquist & E. Sundin (Eds.), Företagerskan. Om kvinnor och entreprenörskap (pp. 47–67). Stockholm: SNS.Google Scholar
  59. Holmquist, C. (2009). Varför ska man främja kvinnors företagande? [Why should women’s entrepreneurship be supported?]. In H. Carin, A. Barle, & K. Winnermark (Eds.), Varför ska man främja kvinnors företagande? (pp. 7–40). Stockholm: Nutek.Google Scholar
  60. Holmquist, C., & Sundin, E. (1990). What’s special about highly educated women entrepreneurs? Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 2(2), 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hytti, U. (2005). New meanings for entrepreneurs: from risk-taking heroes to safe-seeking professionals. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 18(6), 594–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hytti, U. (2010). Contextualizing entrepreneurship in the boundaryless career. Gender in Management, 25(1), 64–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Iannello, K. (1992). Decisions without hierarchy. Feminist interventions in organization theory and practice. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  64. Javefors Grauers, E. (2002). Profession, genus och företagarpar: en studie av advokater och köpmän. Doktorsavhandling. [Profession, gender and business-couples: comparing lawyers to merchants. Doctoral thesis]. Linköping: Linköpings Universitet.Google Scholar
  65. Jennings, J. E., Breitkreuz, R. S., & James, A. E. (2013). When family members are also business owners: Is entrepreneurship good for families? Family Relations, 62(3), 472–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jennings, J. E., & Brush, C. G. (2013). Research on women entrepreneurs: challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature? The Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 663–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kantola, J., & Outshoorn, J. (2007). Changing state feminism. In J. Outshoorn & J. Kantola (Eds.), Changing state feminism (pp. 1–19). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  68. Kantola, J., & Squires, J. (2012). From state feminism to market feminism? Intenational Political Science Review, 33(4), 382–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kautonen, T., & Palmroos, J. (2010). The impact of a necessity-based start-up on subsequent entrepreneurial satisfaction. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(3), 285–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Klyver, K. (2011). Gender differences in entrepreneurial networks: Adding an alter perspective. Gender in Management, 26(5), 332–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kolvereid, L., Shane, S., & Westhead, P. (1993). Is it equally difficult for female entrepreneurs to start businesses in all countries? Journal of Small Business Management, 31(4), 43–51.Google Scholar
  72. Komulainen, K., Korhonen, M., & Räty, H. (2009). Risk‐taking abilities for everyone? Finnish entrepreneurship education and the enterprising selves imagined by pupils. Gender and Education, 21(6), 631–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Komulainen, K., Naskali, P., Korhonen, M., & Keskitalo-Foley, S. (2011). Internal Entrepreneurship—a Trojan horse of the neoliberal governance of education? Finnish pre- and in-service teachers’ implementation of and resistance towards entrepreneurship education. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 9(1), 341–374.Google Scholar
  74. Korhonen, M., Komulainen, K., & Räty, H. (2012). “Not everyone is cut out to be the entrepreneur type”: How Finnish school teachers construct the meaning of entrepreneurship education and the related abilities of the pupils. Nordic Journal of Educational Research, 56(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  75. Kovalainen, A. (1995). At the margins of the economy. Women’s self-employment in Finland, 1960–1990. Aldershot: Avebury.Google Scholar
  76. Kovalainen, A. (2004). Rethinking the revival of social capital and trust in social theory: Possibilities for feminist analysis. In B. L. Marshall & A. Witz (Eds.), Engendering the social: feminist encounters with sociological theory (pp. 155–170). Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Kovalainen, A., & Österberg-Högstedt, J. (2013). Entrepreneurship within social and health care – a question of identity, gender and professionalism. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 5(1), 17–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kroon Lundell, Å. (2012). Sminkad superhjältinna eller leende lagomföretagare? Företagarförebilder i pressen. Stockholm: Tillväxtverket.Google Scholar
  79. Leffler, E. (2006). Företagsamma elever: Diskurser kring entreprenörskap och företagsamhet i skolan. Umeå: Umeå universitet.Google Scholar
  80. Lemke, T. (2001). The birth of bio-politics: Michel Foucault’s lecture at the Collège de France on neo-liberal governmentality. Economy and Society, 30(2), 190–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lindgren, M. (2004). Woman, teacher, entrepreneur: On identity construction in female entrepreneurs of Swedish independent schools. Paper presented at the EIASM conference, Brussels, Brussels, Belgium, Nov 17–19Google Scholar
  82. Ljunggren, E., & Alsos, G. A. (2007). Media expressions of entrepreneurs: Presentations and discourses of male and female entrepreneurs in Norway. In N. M. Carter, C. Henry, B. Ó. Cinnéide, & K. Johnston (Eds.), Female entrepreneurship: Implications for education, training and policy (pp. 88–109). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  83. Ljunggren, E., & Kolvereid, L. (1996). New business formation: does gender make a difference? Women in Management Review, 11(4), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. MacKinnon, C. (1989). Toward a feminist theory of the state. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Marlow, S. (2014). Exploring future research agendas in the field of gender and entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 6(2), 102–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Marlow, S., & McAdam, M. (2012). Advancing debate: An epistemological critique of the relationship between gender, entrepreneurship and firm performance. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 19(1), 6–6.Google Scholar
  87. McCloskey, D. (2000). Post-modern free-market feminism: a conversation with Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Rethinking Marxism, 12(4), 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mirchandani, K. (1999). Feminist insight on gendered work: new directions in research on women and entrepreneurship. Gender, Work and Organization, 6(4), 224–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Neergaard, H., Frederiksen, S. H., & Marlow, S. The Emperor’s new Clothes: Rendering a Feminist Theory of Entrepreneurship visible. In International Council for Small Business (ICSB). World Conference Proceedings: 1–36, Stockholm, 2011 (pp. 1–36): ICSB WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  90. Neergaard, H., Nielsen, K. T., & Kjeldsen, J. I. (2006). State of the art of women’s entrepreneurship, access to financing and financing strategies in Denmark. In C. Brush, N. M. Carter, E. J. Gatewood, P. Greene, & M. Hart (Eds.), Growth oriented women entrepreneurs and their businesses: a global research perspective (pp. 88–111). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  91. Neergaard, H., & Thrane, C. (2011). The Nordic Welfare Model: barrier or facilitator of women’s entrepreneurship in Denmark? International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 3(2), 88–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nilsson, P. (1997). Business counselling services directed towards female entrepreneurs—some legitimacy dilemmas. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 9(3), 239–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nilsson, P. (2010). Constructing p(e)ace-makers for women’s enterprise. In F. Bill, B. Bjerke, & A. W. Johansson (Eds.), (De)Mobilizing the entrepreneurship discourse (pp. 15–36). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  94. Nutek. (2007). Utfall och styrning av statliga insatser för kapitalförsörjning ur ett könsperspektiv [Outcome and governance of state support for capital provision from a gender perspective]. Stockholm: Nutek.Google Scholar
  95. OECD (2012). OECDiLibrary: Total tax revenue as a percentage of GDP. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/taxation/total-tax-revenue_20758510-table 2. Accessed June 29, 2014.
  96. Pettersson, K. (2004). Masculine entrepreneurship - the Gnosjö discourse in a feminist perspective. In D. Hjorth & C. Steyaert (Eds.), Narrative and discursive approaches in entrepreneurship (pp. 177–193). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  97. Pettersson, K. (2012). Support for women’s entrepreneurship—A Nordic spectrum. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 4(1), 4–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pettersson, K., & Hedberg, C. (2013). Moving out of ‘their places’? – Immigrant women care entrepreneurs in Sweden. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 19(3), 345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Phillips, M., Pullen, A., & Rhodes, C. (2014). Writing organization as gendered practice: interrupting the libidinal economy. Organization Studies, 35(3), 313–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Robb, A. M., & Watson, J. (2012). Gender differences in firm performance: evidence from new ventures in the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(5), 544–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rose, N. (1993). Government, authority and expertise in advanced liberalism. Economy and Society, 22(3), 283–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rothstein, B., & Uslaner, E. M. (2005). All for all: Equality, corruption, and social trust. World Politics, 58(01), 41–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sainsbury, D. (Ed.). (1999). Gender and welfare state regimes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Sandberg, K. W. (2003). An exploratory study of women in micro enterprises: gender-related differences. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(4), 408–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sandström, U., Wold, A., Jordansson, B., Ohlsson, B., & Smedberg, Å. (2010). Hans Excellens: om miljardsatsningarna på starka forskningsmiljöer [His excellency: on the investment of billions on strong research centers]. Stockholm: Delegationen för jämställdhet i högskolan.Google Scholar
  106. Shane, S., Kolvereid, L., & Westhead, P. (1991). An exploratory examination of the reasons leading to new firm foundation across country and gender. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(6), 431–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  108. Sköld, B. (2013). Strukturerna och företagandet: En longitudinell studie av kvinnors och mäns företagande i spåren av offentlig sektors omvandling [Structures and business ownership: A longitudinal study of women's and men's business-ownership in the wake of public sector transformation] (Licenciatavhandling). Linköping: Linköpings UniversitetGoogle Scholar
  109. Spilling, O. R., & Berg, N. G. (2000). Gender and small business management: the case of Norway in the 1990:s. International Small Business Journal, 18(2), 38–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Statistics Sweden. (2012). Women and men in Sweden. Örebro: Statistiska centralbyrån.Google Scholar
  111. Stenmark, L. (2012). Den regionala utvecklingens logik i policy och praktik: en fallstudie av den regionalpolitiska interventionen Resurscentra för kvinnor [The logic of regional development in policy and practice]. Västerås: Mälardalens högskola.Google Scholar
  112. Stevenson, L. (1990). Some methodological problems associated with researching women entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(4–5), 439–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Steyaert, C., & Hjorth, D. (Eds.). (2006). Entrepreneurship as social change. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  114. Sundin, E. (2002). Företagandets manliga prägling [The male gender-labelling of entrepreneurship]. In C. Holmqvist & E. Sundin (Eds.), Företagerskan - om kvinnors entreprenörskap (pp. 27–46). Stockholm: SNS.Google Scholar
  115. Sundin, E. (2011). Entrepreneurship and the reorganization of the public sector: A gendered story. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 32(4), 631–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sundin, E., & Holmquist, C. (1989). Kvinnor som företagare. Osynlighet, mångfald, anpassning [Women entrepreneurs: invisibility, diversity, adjustment]. Malmö: Liber.Google Scholar
  117. Sundin, E., & Rapp, G. (2006). Städerskorna som försvann, Individen i den offentliga sektorn [The cleaners who dissappeared: The individual in the public sector]. Arbetsliv i omvandling. Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet.Google Scholar
  118. Sundin, E., & Rapp, G. (2011). Att främja kvinnors företagande - exemplet Östergötland [Supporting women’s entrepreneurship—the Östergötland example]. Helix working papers. Linköping: Linköpings universitet.Google Scholar
  119. Sundin, E., & Thörnqvist, A. (2006). När anställda blir företagare: Strukturomvandling och nya organisationsformer i ägande och arbete [When employees become self-employed: Structural change and new organizational forms in ownership and work]. Arbetsliv i omvandling. Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet.Google Scholar
  120. Sundin, E., & Tillmar, M. (2010a). The masculinization of the elderly care sector: local-level studies of public sector outsourcing. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 49–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sundin, E., & Tillmar, M. (2010b). Varför ska kvinnor starta företag inom vård och omsorg? [Why should women start care businesses?]. Stockholm: Tillväxtverket.Google Scholar
  122. Tillmar, M. (2007). Gendered small business assistance: lessons from a Swedish project. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(2), 84–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tillmar, M. (2009). Societal Entrepreneurs in the Health Sector—Crossing the Frontiers. Social Enterprise Journal, 5(3), 282–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tillväxtverket. (2012). Hur kan företagsstöden bli mer jämställda? Förslag på åtgärder som skapar förutsättningar för en mer jämställd resursfördelning vad avser beviljande av företagsstöd. Rapport 0151 [How can business support become more gender equal?]. Stockholm: Tillväxtverket.Google Scholar
  125. Ulvenblad, P., Blomkvist, M., & Winborg, J. (2011). Academic entrepreneurship – the structure of incubator management and best practice reported on Swedish business incubators’ websites. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 12(4), 445–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. UNdata (2012). Gender Inequality Index. http://data.un.org/DocumentData.aspx?q=HDI+&id=332. Accessed Feb 19 2014.
  127. Watson, J. (2002). Comparing the performance of male- and female-controlled businesses: relating outputs to inputs. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(3), 91–100.Google Scholar
  128. Welter, F. (2011). Contextualising entrepreneurship: conceptual challenges and ways forward. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wottle, M., & Blomberg, E. (2011). Feminism och jämställdhet i en nyliberal kontext 1990–2010 [Feminism and gender equality in a neo-liberal context 1990–2010]. Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, 2–3, 97–115.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helene Ahl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karin Berglund
    • 2
  • Katarina Pettersson
    • 3
  • Malin Tillmar
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Education and CommunicationJönköping UniversityJönköpingSweden
  2. 2.Stockholm University School of BusinessStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  4. 4.Department of Management and Engineering and Helix Vinn Excellence CentreLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations