Entrepreneurial intentions, motivations and barriers: Differences among American, Asian and European students

  • Olivier Giacomin
  • Frank JanssenEmail author
  • Mark Pruett
  • Rachel S. Shinnar
  • Francisco Llopis
  • Bryan Toney


Should entrepreneurship education be the same in every country or should it be adapted to each context? In addition to answering this question, it appears to be important to identify the concerns students have regarding their entrepreneurship education programs, so as to strengthen their perceptions of feasibility and desirability of an entrepreneurial career. In this article we examine whether differences exist among American, Asian and European students in terms of entrepreneurial intentions and dispositions, as well as motivations and perceived barriers for business startup. Results indicate that entrepreneurial disposition and intentions differ by country but that students across countries are motivated and/or discouraged by similar variables. However, our results indicate that the levels of sensitivity to each motivator and barrier differ by country. Our results support the argument made by past researches that cultural differences should be taken into consideration when developing entrepreneurship education programs.


Entrepreneurship education Cross-cultural Motivations Barriers Belgium US China India Spain 



Frank Janssen and Olivier Giacomin wish to thank the Banque Nationale de Belgique for its financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivier Giacomin
    • 1
  • Frank Janssen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mark Pruett
    • 2
  • Rachel S. Shinnar
    • 2
  • Francisco Llopis
    • 3
  • Bryan Toney
    • 2
  1. 1.Brederode Chair in Entrepreneurship, CRECIS, Louvain School of MangementUniversité catholique de LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium
  2. 2.Walker College of BusinessAppalachian State UniversityBooneUSA
  3. 3.University of AlicanteAlicanteSpain

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