Advertisement

Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels: a role for education

  • Francisco Liñán
  • Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Cohard
  • José M. Rueda-Cantuche
Article

Abstract

A considerable agreement exists about the importance of promoting entrepreneurship to stimulate economic development and employment generation. In particular, entrepreneurship education has been considered one of the key instruments to increase the entrepreneurial attitudes of both potential and nascent entrepreneurs. Nevertheless, the factors that determine the individual’s decision to start a venture are still not completely clear. Cognitive approaches have attracted considerable interest recently. But the explaining capacity of personality traits or demographic characteristics is still considered. Therefore, there is a need to clarify which elements play the most influential role in shaping the personal decision to start a firm. This paper tries to contribute to filling this gap by providing empirically-based suggestions for the design of improved entrepreneurship education initiatives. The empirical analysis is based on two essential elements: firstly, an already validated instrument (EIQ); secondly, a statistical method (factor-regression procedure) which is not dependent on any theoretical approach. It uses all the information collected through the questionnaire items, selecting them solely based on their capacity to explain the dependent variable. Results will allow the design of more effective education initiatives. They suggest that personal attitude and perceived behavioural control are the most relevant factors explaining entrepreneurial intentions. Thus, based on these results, a number of considerations about the most effective role of education in promoting and developing attitudes and intentions towards entrepreneurship are considered. Besides, the EIQ could be used as an evaluation instrument for entrepreneurial education programmes.

Keywords

Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial intention Entrepreneurial intention questionnaire Entrepreneurial education 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the editors, for their guidance and support through the review process, and two anonymous referees for their comments and suggestions, which have substantially contributed to improve this final version of the paper. Of course, any errors that remain are the sole responsibility of the authors.

The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and should not be attributed to the European Commission, its services or any of the Universities of affiliation.

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Audretsch, D. B. (2002). Entrepreneurship: Determinants and policy in a European-US comparison. Boston: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Autio, E., Keeley, R. H., Klofsten, M., Parker, G. G. C., & Hay, M. (2001). Entrepreneurial intent among students in Scandinavia and in the USA. Enterprise and Innovation Management Studies, 2(2), 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  7. Baron, R. A. (2004). The cognitive perspective: a valuable tool for answering entrepreneurship’s basic “why” questions. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 221–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Birley, S., & Westhead, P. (1994). A taxonomy of business start-up reasons and their impact on firm growth and size. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(1), 7–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brännback, M., Krueger, N. F., Carsrud, A. L., & Kickul, J. (2007). ‘Trying’ to be an entrepreneur? A ‘goal-specific’ challenge to the intentions model. Paper presented at the Babson Entrepreneurship Research Conference. Madrid, 2007.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, R. (1990). Encouraging enterprise: Britain’s graduate enterprise program. Journal of Small Business Management, 28(4), 71–77.Google Scholar
  11. Carrier, C. (2005). Pedagogical challenges in entrepreneurship education. In P. Kyrö & C. Carrier (Eds.), The dynamics of learning entrepreneurship in a cross-cultural university context (pp. 136–158). Hämmeenlinna: University of Tampere.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, S. Y., & Lucas, W. A. (2007). Developing entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions: Lessons from two programmes. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 52nd ICSB World Conference.Google Scholar
  13. Cooper, S. Y., & Park, J. S. (2008). The impact of ‘incubator’ organizations on opportunity recognition and technology innovation in new, entrepreneurial high-technology ventures. International Small Business Journal, 26(1), 27–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeTienne, D. R., & Chandler, G. N. (2004). Opportunity identification and its role in the entrepreneurial classroom: a pedagogical approach and empirical test. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3(3), 242–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Epstein, R. (1996). Cognition, creativity and behaviour. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  16. European Commission. (2003). Green paper—entrepreneurship in Europe. Brussels: DG Enterprise. European Commission.Google Scholar
  17. Fayolle, A., & DeGeorge, J.-M. (2006). Attitudes, intentions, and behaviour: New approaches to evaluating entrepreneurship education. In A. Fayolle & H. Klandt (Eds.), International entrepreneurship education. Issues and newness (pp. 74–89). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  18. Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., & Lassas-Clerc, N. (2007). Towards a new methodology to assess the entrepreneurship teaching programmes. In A. Fayolle (Ed.), Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education (Vol. 1, pp. 187–197). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  19. Fillion, L. J. (1995). Entrepreneurship and management: Differing but complementary processes. Cahier de Recherche, CETAI, HEC Montreal., 95-01.Google Scholar
  20. Foley, A., & Griffith, B. (1998). Education, training and the promotion of high quality entrepreneurs in the Republic of Ireland. In M. G. Scott, P. Rosa, & H. Klandt (Eds.), Educating entrepreneurs for wealth creation. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  21. Frank, H., Lueger, M., & Korunka, C. (2007). The significance of personality in business start-up intentions, start-up realization and business success. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19(3), 227–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garavan, T. N., & O’Cinneide, B. (1994a). Entrepreneurship education and training programmes: a review and evaluation—Part II. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(11), 13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garavan, T. N., & O’Cinneide, B. (1994b). Entrepreneurship education and training programmes: a review and evaluation. Journal of European Industrial Training, 18(8), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gartner, W. B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 494–706.Google Scholar
  25. Gartner, W. B. (1989). ‘Who is an entrepreneur?’ Is the wrong question. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13(4), 47–68.Google Scholar
  26. Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., & Gartner, W. B. (1995). A longitudinal-study of cognitive-factors influencing start-up behaviors and success at venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(5), 371–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibb, A. A. (1987). Designing effective programmes for encouraging the business start-up process: lessons from UK experience. Journal of European Industrial Training, 11(4), 24–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gibb, A. A. (1998). Entrepreneurial core capacities, competitiveness and management development in the 21st century. Paper presented at the IntEnt Conference, Oestrich-Winkel.Google Scholar
  29. Gorman, G. G., Hanlon, D., & King, W. (1997). Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education, enterprise education and education for small business management. International Small Business Journal, 15, 56–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hartshorn, C., & Parvin, W. (1999). Teaching entrepreneurship: creating and implementing a naturalistic model. Paper presented at the International Conference EuroPME, Rennes.Google Scholar
  31. Honig, B. (2004). Entrepreneurship education: toward a model of contingency-based business planning. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3(3), 258–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johannisson, B. (1991). University training for entrepreneurship: Swedish approaches. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 3(1), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kalternborn, O. (1998). Entrepreneur-service (ES)—a national project for improved local service to entrepreneurs. In M. G. Scott, P. Rosa, & H. Klandt (Eds.), Educating entrepreneurs for wealth creation. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  34. Kent, C. A. (1990). Entrepreneurship education: Current developments, future directions. New York: Quorum Books.Google Scholar
  35. Kolvereid, L. (1996). Prediction of employment status choice intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 21(1), 47–57.Google Scholar
  36. Kolvereid, L., & Isaksen, E. (2006). New business start-up and subsequent entry into self-employment. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(6), 866–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kor, Y. Y., Mahoney, J. T., & Michael, S. C. (2007). Resources, capabilities and entrepreneurial perceptions. Journal of Management Studies, 44(7), 1187–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krueger, N. F. (2003). The cognitive psychology of entrepreneurship. In Z. J. Acs & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Handbook of entrepreneurship research: An interdisciplinary survey and introduction (pp. 105–140). London: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  39. Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5–6), 411–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lechner, C., & Dowling, M. (1998). How to design business plan seminars? Single topic business plan courses as a focused approach. Paper presented at the IntEnt Conference, Oestrich-Winkel.Google Scholar
  41. Levesque, M., & Minniti, M. (2006). The effect of aging on entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(2), 177–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liñán, F. (2004). Intention-based models of entrepreneurship education. Piccola Impresa / Small Business, 2004(3), 11–35.Google Scholar
  43. Liñán, F. (2007). The role of entrepreneurship education in the entrepreneurial process. In A. Fayolle (Ed.), Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education (Vol. 1, pp. 230–247). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  44. Liñán, F. (2008). Skill and value perceptions: how do they affect entrepreneurial intentions? International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(3), 257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liñán, F., Urbano, D., & Guerrero, M. (2010). Regional variations in entrepreneurial cognitions: Start-up intentions of university students in Spain. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development.Google Scholar
  47. Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.Google Scholar
  48. Luthje, C., & Franke, N. (2003). The ‘making’ of an entrepreneur: testing a model of entrepreneurial intent among engineering students at MIT. R & D Management, 33(2), 135–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Matthews, C. H., & Moser, S. B. (1996). A longitudinal investigation of the impact of family background and gender on interest in small firm ownership. Journal of Small Business Management, 34(2), 29–43.Google Scholar
  50. Mazzarol, T., Volery, T., Doss, N., & Thein, V. (1999). Factors influencing small business start-ups. A comparison with previous research. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 5(2), 48–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  52. Minniti, M., & Nardone, C. (2007). Being in someone else’s shoes: the role of gender in nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 28(2–3), 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mitra, J. (2008). Towards an analytical framework for policy development. In J. Potter (Ed.), Entrepreneurship and higher education. Paris: OECD—Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED).Google Scholar
  54. Nolan, A. (2003). Entrepreneurship and local economic development. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  55. Pardo, A., & Ruiz, M. A. (2002). SPSS 11 Guía para el análisis de datos. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  56. Peterman, N. E., & Kennedy, J. (2003). Enterprise education: influencing students’ perceptions of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(2), 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Potter, J. (2008). Entrepreneurship and higher education. Paris: OECD—Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED).Google Scholar
  58. Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let’s put the person back into entrepreneurship research: a meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners’ personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16(4), 353–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Reynolds, P. D. (1997). Who starts new firms?—Preliminary explorations of firms-in-gestation. Small Business Economics, 9(5), 449–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reynolds, P. D., Storey, D. J., & Westhead, P. (1994). Cross-national comparison of the variation in new firm rates. Regional Studies, 28, 443–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Reynolds, P. D., Bygrave, W., Autio, E., & Hay, M. (2002). Global entrepreneurship monitor. 2002 summary report. Kansas City: Ewin Marion Kauffman Foundation.Google Scholar
  62. Robinson, P. B., Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J., & Hunt, H. K. (1991). An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 15(4), 13–31.Google Scholar
  63. Santos, F. J., & Liñán, F. (2007). Measuring entrepreneurial quality in southern Europe. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 3(1), 87–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Scherer, R. F., Brodzinsky, J. D., & Wiebe, F. A. (1991). Examining the relationship between personality and entrepreneurial career preference. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 3, 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  66. Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72–90). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  67. Storey, D. J. (1994). Understanding the small business sector. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  68. Thompson, E. R. (2009). Individual entrepreneurial intent: construct clarification and development of an internationally reliable metric. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 669–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tkachev, A., & Kolvereid, L. (1999). Self-employment intentions among Russian students. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 11(3), 269–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Veciana, J. M., Aponte, M., & Urbano, D. (2005). University students’ attitudes towards entrepreneurship: a two countries comparison. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(2), 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wagner, J., & Sternberg, R. (2004). Start-up activities, individual characteristics, and the regional milieu: lessons for entrepreneurship support policies from German micro data. Annals of Regional Science, 38(2), 219–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Liñán
    • 1
  • Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Cohard
    • 2
  • José M. Rueda-Cantuche
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Applied EconomicsUniversity of SevilleSevillaSpain
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsUniversity of JaénJaénSpain
  3. 3.European Commission - Joint Research CentreIPTS - Institute for Prospective Technological StudiesSevilleSpain
  4. 4.Pablo de Olavide UniversitySevilleSpain

Personalised recommendations