Advertisement

Entrepreneurial intention: the role of gender

  • Maria Cristina Díaz-García
  • Juan Jiménez-Moreno
Article

Abstract

There is general agreement in previous research, drawing on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, that attitudes towards entrepreneurship are determining factors on entrepreneurial intention and gender also seems to play a key role. This study supports the core entrepreneurial intention model and focuses on the role of gender in this process, showing that men are more likely to think about creating a firm than being determined to do it. However, of those men, the ones who perceive higher congruence between masculine and entrepreneurial attributes are more likely to have a firm entrepreneurial intention. Also, both men and women with a firm entrepreneurial intention perceive successful entrepreneurs to have feminine attributes. This, together with the characteristics of the sample, may explain the lack of a gender difference in entrepreneurial intention.

Keywords

Gender Social norms Self-efficacy Attitude Entrepreneurial intention 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank Professor Sara Carter of the University of Strathclyde for her very helpful comments that contributed to the development of this paper.

References

  1. Ahl, H. (2002). The making of the female entrepreneur: A discourse analysis of research texts on women’s entrepreneurship. PhD Dissertation, JIBS dissertation series No.015, Jönköping International Business School Ltd.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. (1987). Attitudes, traits, and actions: Dispositional prediction of behaviour in social psychology. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 1–63. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60411-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27–58. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anna, A. L., Chandler, G. N., Jansen, E., & Mero, N. P. (1999). Women business owners in traditional and non-traditional industries. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 279–303. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00012-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: A meta-analytic review. The British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 471–499. doi: 10.1348/014466601164939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Autio, E. Keepley, R. H., Klopten, M. & Ulfsted, T. (1997). Entrepreneurial intent among students: Testing an intent model in Asia, Scandinavia and USA. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 17. Babson College: Wellesley.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. The American Psychologist, 37, 122–147. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.37.2.122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. The American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175–1184. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barber, B. M., & Odean, T.(1998). Boys will be boys: Gender, overconfidence and common stock investment, http: //ssrn.com/abstract=139415.
  11. Baron, A. (1998). Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: why and when entrepreneurs think differently than other people. Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 275–294. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00031-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baron, R., Markman, G., & Hirza, A. (2001). Perceptions of women and men as entrepreneurs: evidence for differential effects of attributional augmenting. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 923–929. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baughn, C., Chua, B. L., & Neupert, K. E. (2006). The normative context for women’s participation in entrepreneurship: a multicountry study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 687–708. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00142.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: the case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442–453. doi: 10.2307/258091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bird, B. & Brush, C. G. (2002). A gendered perspective on organizational creation. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Spring, 41–65.Google Scholar
  16. Birley (1989). Female entrepreneurs: are they really different? Journal of Small Business Management, 27(1), 32–37.Google Scholar
  17. Boyd, N. G., & Vozikis, G. S. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(4), 63–77.Google Scholar
  18. Brush, C., Griffin, J., & Smith, C. (1995). Perceived value of entrepreneurship course content and pedagogy. Paper presented at the SBIDA conference, www.sbaer.uca.edu/research/sbida/1995/pdf/10.pdf.
  19. Cames, I., Vinnicome, S., & Singh, V. (2001). Profile of “successful managers” held by male and female banking managers across Europe. Women in Management Review, 16(3), 108–117. doi: 10.1108/09649420110390273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carayannis, E., Evans, D., & Hanson, M. (2003). A cross-cultural learning strategy for entrepreneurship education: outline of key concepts and lessons learned form a comparative study of entrepreneurship students in France and the US. Technovation, 23(9), 757. doi: 10.1016/S0166-4972(02)00030-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carter, N. (2002). The role of risk orientation on financing expectations in new venture creation: does sex matter? Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Babson College: Wellesley.Google Scholar
  22. Chen, C. C., Green, P. G., & Crick, A. (1998). Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing, 13(4), 295–316. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00029-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Constant, A. (2006). Female proclivity to the world of business. Kyklos, 59(4), 465–480. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6435.2006.00345.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooper, S., & Lucas, W. (2007). Building entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intent through education and experience. Paper presented at ISBE Conference, November, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  25. Crannie-Francies, A., Waring, W., Stavropoulos, P., & Kirky, J. (2003). Gender studies: Terms and debates. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  26. Cuervo, A. (2005). Individual and environmental determinants of entrepreneurship. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(3), 293–311. doi: 10.1007/s11365-005-2591-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davidsson, P. (2006). Nascent entrepreneurship: empirical studies and development. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 1–76. doi: 10.1561/0300000005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 301–331. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(02)00097-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deakins, D., Glancey, K., Menter, I., & Wyper, J. (2005). Enterprise education: The role of head teachers. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(2), 241–263. doi: 10.1007/s11365-005-1131-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Delmar, F., & Davidsson, P. (2000). Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 12, 1–23. doi: 10.1080/089856200283063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Delmar, F., & Holmquist, C. (2004). Women’s entrepreneurship: Issues and policies. Report presented at the 2nd OECD Conference of Ministers Responsible for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Istanbul, Turkey, June.Google Scholar
  32. DeTienne, D. R., & Chandler, G. N. (2007). The role of gender in opportunity identification. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 365–386. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00178.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Douglas, E. J., & Shepherd, D. A. (2000). Entrepreneurship as a utility maximizing response. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 231–251. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00008-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Drucker, P. (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship: Practices and principles. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  35. Duehr, E. E., & Bono, J. B. (2006). Men, women and managers: are stereotypes finally changing? Personnel Psychology, 59, 815–846. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00055.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fagenson, E. A., & Marcus, E. C. (1991). Perceptions of sex-role stereotypic characteristics of entrepreneurs: women’s evaluations. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Summer, 33–47.Google Scholar
  37. Fondas, N. (1997). Feminization unveiled: management qualities in contemporary writings. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 257–282. doi: 10.2307/259231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fuller-Love, N., Lim, L., & Akehurst, G. (2006). Guest editorial: female and ethnic minority entrepreneurship. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(2), 429–439. doi: 10.1007/s11365-006-0007-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., Powers, J. B. & Gartner, W. B. (2002). Entrepreneurial expectancy, task effort and performance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Winter, 95–114.Google Scholar
  40. Grilo, I., & Thurik, R. (2005). Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: Some recent developments. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(4), 441–459. doi: 10.1007/s11365-005-4772-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guerrero, M., Rialp, J., & Urbano, D. (2008). The impact of desirability and feasibility on entrepreneurial intentions: A structural equation model. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1, 35–50. doi: 10.1007/s11365-006-0032-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gupta, V. K., & Bhawe, N. M. (2007). The influence of proactive personality and stereotype threat on women’s entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 13(4), 73–85. doi: 10.1177/10717919070130040901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., Wasti, S. A., & Sikdar, A. (2008). The role of gender stereotypes and perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (in press).Google Scholar
  44. Hackett, G., Betz, N. E., Casas, J., & Rocha-Singh, I. (1992). Gender, ethnicity and social cognitive factors predicting achievement. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39, 527–538. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.39.4.527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harding, R., & Bosma, N. (2006). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2006: Global Summary Results. http://www.gemconsortium.org/about.aspx?page=global_reports_2006.
  46. Hazlett, S. A., Henderson, J., Hill, F., & Leicht, C. (2006). Attitudes towards entrepreneurship among female and male undergraduates: a preliminary study. In N. M. Carter, C. Henry, B. O’Cinnéide, & K. Johnston (Eds.), Female entrepreneurship: Implications for education, training and policy (pp. 69–87). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Heilman, M. E., & Chen, J. J. (2003). Entrepreneurship as a solution: the allure of self-employment for women and minorities. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 347–365.Google Scholar
  48. Henley, A. (2007). Entrepreneurial aspiration and transition into self-employment: evidence from British longitudinal data. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19(3), 253–280. doi: 10.1080/08985620701223080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hollenbeck, G., & Hall, D. T. (2004). Self-confidence and leader performance. Organizational Dynamics, 33(3), 254–269. doi: 10.1016/j.orgdyn.2004.06.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holmquist, C., & Sundin, E. (Eds.). (2002). Företagerskan–om kvinnor och enterprenörskap. Stockholm: SNS.Google Scholar
  51. Instituto de la Mujer (2005). Observatorio para la Igualdad de Oportunidades entre Mujeres y Hombres. Diario electrónico del Gabinete de Prensa del MTAS, 09/05/2005.Google Scholar
  52. Iyigun, M., & Owen, A. (1998). Risk, entrepreneurship and human capital accumulation. The American Economic Review, 88, 45–457.Google Scholar
  53. Jack, S. L., & Anderson, A. R. (2002). The effects of embeddedness on the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 17, 467–487. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(01)00076-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones, K., & Tullous, R. (2002). Behaviours of pre-venture entrepreneurs and perceptions of their financial needs. Journal of Small Business Management, 40(3), 233–249. doi: 10.1111/1540-627X.00053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kickul, J., & Krueger, N. F. (2005). Toward a new model of intentions: the complexity of gender, cognitive style, culture, social norms and intensity on the pathway to entrepreneurship. Centre for Gender in Organizations (Simmons School of Management), Working Paper no. 20.Google Scholar
  56. Koellinger, P., Minitti, M., & Schade, C. (2005). I think I can, I think I can: overconfidence and entrepreneurial behaviour. DIW Discussion Paper No. 501. Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  57. Kolvereid, L., & Isaksen, E. (2006). New business start-up and subsequent entry into self-employment. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(6), 866–885. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2005.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kolvereid, L., & Moen, O. (1997). Entrepreneurship among business graduates: Does a major in entrepreneurship make a difference. Journal of European Industrial Training, 21(4), 154–160. doi: 10.1108/03090599710171404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kourilsky, M., & Walstad, W. B. (1998). Executive forum: entrepreneurship and female youth: Knowledge, attitudes, gender differences and educational practices. Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 77–88. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00032-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Krueger, N. F. (1993). The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18, 5–21.Google Scholar
  61. Krueger, N. F. (2007). What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(1), 123–138. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00166.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Krueger, N. F. & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Spring, 91–104.Google Scholar
  63. Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Casrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15, 411–432. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kwong, C., Brooksbank, D., Jones-Evans, D., & Thompson, P. (2006). Female entrepreneurship: An exploration of activity and attitudes across the UK. Paper presented at the ISBA Conference, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  65. Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 341–364. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00177.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee, S. M., Lim, S.-B., Pathak, R. D., Chang, D., & Li, W. (2006). Influences on students attitudes toward entrepreneurship: a multi-country study. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(3), 351–366. doi: 10.1007/s11365-006-0003-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Levenson, H. (1973). Multidimensional locus of control in psychiatric patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 397–404. doi: 10.1037/h0035357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liao, J., & Welsch, H. (2004). Entrepreneurial intensity. In W. B. Gartner, K. G. Shaver, N. M. Carter, & P. D. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of entrepreneurial dynamics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  69. Liñán, F. M., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 400–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liñán, F., Urbano, F., & Guerrero, M. (2007). Entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Spain: A regional comparison. Paper presented at the XVII National Conference of ACEDE, September, Seville.Google Scholar
  71. Ljunggren, E., & Kolvereid, L. (1998). New business formation: does gender make a difference? Women in Management Review, 11(4), 3–12. doi: 10.1108/09649429610122096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Luthje, C., & Franke, N. (2003). The “making” of an entrepreneur: Testing a model of entrepreneurial intent among engineering students. R&D Management, 33(2), 135. doi: 10.1111/1467-9310.00288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Markman, G. D., Balkin, D. B., & Baron, R. A. (2002). Inventors and new venture formation: The effects of general self-efficacy and regretful thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(2), 149–165. doi: 10.1111/1540-8520.00004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Marlino, D., & Wilson, F. (2003). Teen girls on business: Are they being empowered?. Boston, MA and Chigago, IL: Simmons School of Management and The Committee of 200.Google Scholar
  75. Marlow, S. (2002). Women and self-employment: a part or apart from theoretical construct. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 3(2), 83–91.Google Scholar
  76. Marlow, S., & Patton, D. (2005). All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance and gender. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, November, 717–735.Google Scholar
  77. Martins, L. L., Eddleston, K. A., & Veiga, J. F. (2002). Moderators of the relationship between work–family conflict and career satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 399–409. doi: 10.2307/3069354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Masters, R., & Meier, R. (1988). Sex differences and risk taking propensity of entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(1), 31–35.Google Scholar
  79. Menzies, T. V., & Tatroff, H. (2006). The propensity of male versus female students to take courses and degree concentrations in entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 19(2), 203–218.Google Scholar
  80. Menzies, T. V., Diochon, M., Gasse, Y., & Elgie, S. (2006). A longitudinal study of female vs. male nascent entrepreneurs in Canada: characteristics, process and outcome differences. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(4), 441–453. doi: 10.1007/s11365-006-0013-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Miller, L., & Budd, J. (1999). The development of occupational sex-role stereotypes, occupational preferences and academic subject preferences in children at ages 8, 12 and 16. Educational Psychology, 19, 17–35. doi: 10.1080/0144341990190102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Minniti, M., & Nardone, C. (2007). Being in someone else’s shoes: the role of gender in nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 28(2–3), 223–238. doi: 10.1007/s11187-006-9017-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Minniti, M., Arenius, P., & Langowitz, N. (2005). 2004 Global entrepreneurship monitor special topic report: Women and entrepreneurship. Babson Park, MA: Center for Women’s Leadership at Babson College.Google Scholar
  84. Morales-Gualdrón, S. T., & Roig, S. (2005). The new venture decision: an analysis based on the GEM Project Database. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(4), 479–499. doi: 10.1007/s11365-005-4774-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Niederle, M., & Vesterlund, L. (2005). Do women shy away from competition? Do men compete too much? NBER Working Paper, No. 11474.Google Scholar
  86. Nilsson, P. (1997). Business counseling services directed towards female entrepreneurs: some legitimacy dilemmas. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 9(3), 239–258. doi: 10.1080/08985629700000014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Peterman, N. E., & Kennedy, J. K. (2003). Enterprise education: influencing student’s perceptions of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Winter, 129–144.Google Scholar
  89. Pillis, E., & Reardon, K. K. (2007). The influence of personality traits and persuasive messages on entrepreneurial intention: Across-cultural comparison. Career Development International, 12(4), 382–396. doi: 10.1108/13620430710756762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pistrui, D., Liao, J., & Welsch, H. (1998). Entrepreneurial expansion plans: An empirical investigation of infrastructure predictors. Paper presented at RENT XII, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  91. Reynolds, P. D., Hay, M., Bygrave, W. D., Camp, S. M., & Autio, E. (2000). Global entrepreneurship monitor executive report. USA: Kauffman Foundation.Google Scholar
  92. Rodriguez, M. J., & Santos, F. J. (2008). Women nascent entrepreneurs and social capital in the process of firm creation. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(2), 1–50.Google Scholar
  93. Rosenthal, P. (1995). Gender differences in managers’ attributions for successful work performance. Women in Management Review, 10(6), 16–31. doi: 10.1108/09649429510096006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rouse, J. (2005). Pregnancy and maternity in self-employment: Individualised social reproduction? Paper presented at the 28th ISBE National Conference, Blackpool, November.Google Scholar
  95. Schein, V. E., & Mueller, R. (1992). Sex role stereotyping and requisite management characteristics: a cross-cultural look. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 33–41. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199601)17:1<33::AID-JOB778>3.0.CO;2-F.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Scherer, R. F., Brodzinski, J. D. & Wiebe, F. A. (1990). Entrepreneurs career selection and gender: a socialization approach. Journal of Small Business Management, April, 37–44.Google Scholar
  97. Segal, G., Borgia, D., & Schoenfeld, J. (2005). The motivation to become an entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 11(1), 42–57. doi: 10.1108/13552550510580834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sexton, L. D., & Bowman, N. B. (1986). Validation of a personality index: comparative psychological characteristics analysis of female entrepreneurs, managers, entrepreneurship students and business students. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Wellesley, MA: Babson College, pp. 40–51.Google Scholar
  99. Sexton, D. L., & Bowman-Upton, N. (1990). Female and male entrepreneurs: psychological characteristics and their role in gender-related discrimination. Journal of Business Venturing, 5, 29–36. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(90)90024-N.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25, 217–226. doi: 10.2307/259271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shapero, A. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. Vesper (Eds.), The encyclopaedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72–90). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  102. Shaver, K. G., Gatewood, E. J., & Gartner, W. B. (2001). Differing expectations: Comparing nascent entrepreneurs to non-entrepreneurs. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Conference.Google Scholar
  103. Shook, C. L., Priem, R. L., & McGee, J. E. (2003). Venture creation and the enterprising individual: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 29(3), 379–399.Google Scholar
  104. Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22, 566–591. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2006.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  106. Stewart, W. H. Jr., Watson, W. E., Carland, J. C., & Carland, J. W. (1998). A proclivity for entrepreneurship: A comparison of entrepreneurs, small business owners and corporate managers. Journal of Business Venturing, 14, 189–214. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00070-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Thomas, A. S., & Mueller, S. L. (2000). A case for comparative entrepreneurship: Assessing the relevance of culture. Journal of International Business Studies, 31(2), 287–301. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Aukem, H., Stephens, P., Fry, F. L., & Silva, J. (2006). Role model influences on entrepreneurial intentions: A comparison between USA and Mexico. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(3), 325–336. doi: 10.1007/s11365-006-0004-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vaillant, Y., & Lafuente, E. (2007). Do different institutional frameworks condition the influence of local fear of failure and entrepreneurial examples over entrepreneurial activity? Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19(4), 313–337. doi: 10.1080/08985620701440007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Veciana, J. M., Aponte, M., & Urbano, D. (2005). University student’s attitudes towards entrepreneurship: A two countries comparison. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(2), 165–182. doi: 10.1007/s11365-005-1127-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Verheul, I., Uhlaner, L., & Thurik, R. (2003). Business accomplishments, gender and entrepreneurial self-image. SCALES (Scientific Analysis of Entrepreneurship and SMEs)- paper No. 200312, EIM Business and Policy Research.Google Scholar
  112. Wagner, J. (2007). What a difference a Y makes-female and male nascent entrepreneurs in Germany. Small Business Economics, 28(1), 1–21. doi: 10.1007/s11187-005-0259-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Welsch, H., & Pistrui, D. (1993). Entrepreneurship commitment and initiative in Romania. Paper presented at RENT VII, Budapest, Hungary.Google Scholar
  114. Welter, F., Smallbone, D., Isakova, N., & Aculai, E. (2007). The role of gender for entrepreneurship in a transition context. In L. Iandoli, M. Raffa, & H. Landström (Eds.), Frontiers in European research. Cheltenham, UK: Elgar.Google Scholar
  115. Wilson, F., Marlino, D., & Kickul, J. (2004). Our entrepreneurial future: examining the diverse attitudes and motivations of teens across gender and ethnic identity. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 177–197.Google Scholar
  116. Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 387–406. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00179.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wincent, J., & Ortqvist, D. (2008). Role stress and entrepreneurship research. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal (in press).Google Scholar
  118. Winn, J. (2005). Women entrepreneurs: Can we remove the barriers? The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(3), 381–397. doi: 10.1007/s11365-005-2602-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yim, P. C.-Y., & Bond, H. M. (2002). Gender stereotyping of managers and self-concept of business students across their undergraduate education. Women in Management Review, 17, 364–373. doi: 10.1108/09649420210451805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zahra, S. A., Jennings, D. F., & Kuratko, D. F. (1999). The antecedents and consequences of firm-level entrepreneurship: The state of the field. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 24(2), 45–63.Google Scholar
  121. Zampetakis, L. A., & Moustakis, V. (2006). Linking creativity with entrepreneurial intentions: A structural approach. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(3), 413–428. doi: 10.1007/s11365-006-0006-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1265–1272. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Cristina Díaz-García
    • 1
  • Juan Jiménez-Moreno
    • 1
  1. 1.Business Administration, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y EmpresarialesUniversity of Castilla–La ManchaAlbaceteSpain

Personalised recommendations