Influence of social network structure on entrepreneurship participation—A study of 20 national cultures

  • Kim KlyverEmail author
  • Kevin Hindle
  • Denny Meyer


By investigating differences in social networks among entrepreneurs in 20 cultures, this paper contributes to the debate on whether there is universality in the process of entrepreneurial networking. Representative samples of entrepreneurs were identified in the same manner in 20 countries from 2000 to 2004 (N = 304,560). The sampling methodologies and the questions asked were similar across all countries. Logistic regression was used to test for significant regional interaction effects involving personally knowing an entrepreneur. Results are contrary to the existence of any mono-dimensional form of networking practice but do strongly support the existence of both variform universality (culture moderates the importance of networking) and functional universality (cultural similarities in networking practice exist).


Entrepreneurship Social network Global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) Culture Universality 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship ManagementUniversity of Southern DenmarkKoldingDenmark
  2. 2.Australian Graduate School of EntrepreneurshipSwinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia
  3. 3.Faculty of Life and Social SciencesSwinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia

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