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Inflammaging phenotype in rhesus macaques is associated with a decline in epithelial barrier-protective functions and increased pro-inflammatory function in CD161-expressing cells

  • Edith M. Walker
  • Nadia Slisarenko
  • Giovanni L. Gerrets
  • Patricia J. Kissinger
  • Elizabeth S. Didier
  • Marcelo J. Kuroda
  • Ronald S. Veazey
  • S. Michal Jazwinski
  • Namita RoutEmail author
Original Article


The development of chronic inflammation, called inflammaging, contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Although it is known that both B and T lymphocyte compartments of the adaptive immune system deteriorate with advancing age, the impact of aging on immune functions of Th17-type CD161-expressing innate immune cells and their role in inflammaging remain incompletely understood. Here, utilizing the nonhuman primate model of rhesus macaques, we report that a dysregulated Th17-type effector function of CD161+ immune cells is associated with leaky gut and inflammatory phenotype of aging. Higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, GM-CSF, IL-12, and Eotaxin correlated with elevated markers of gut permeability including LPS-binding protein (LBP), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), and sCD14 in aging macaques. Further, older macaques displayed significantly lower frequencies of circulating Th17-type immune cells comprised of CD161+ T cell subsets, NK cells, and innate lymphoid cells. Corresponding with the increased markers of gut permeability, production of the type-17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-22 was impaired in CD161+ T cell subsets and NK cells, along with a skewing towards IFN-γ cytokine production. These findings suggest that reduced frequencies of CD161+ immune cells along with a specific loss in Th17-type effector functions contribute to impaired gut barrier integrity and systemic inflammation in aging macaques. Modulating type-17 immune cell functions via cytokine therapy or dietary interventions towards reducing chronic inflammation in inflammaging individuals may have the potential to prevent or delay age-related chronic diseases and improve immune responses in the elderly population.


Inflammaging Leaky gut CD161+ cells I-FABP LBP sCD14 



The authors acknowledge Mary Barnes and Melissa Pattison of the Pathogen Detection and Quantification Core of Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) for assistance with the multiplex cytokine detection assays and use of the Bioplex-200 instrumentation, and the clinical veterinary staff in the Division of Veterinary Medicine at TNPRC for coordinating the blood collections. Technical assistance of the flow cytometry core facility staff at the TNPRC is greatly appreciated.

Author contributions

Namita Rout was responsible for the study design, data analysis and interpretation and wrote the manuscript. Edith Walker coordinated the overall work including sample collection procedures and conducting the flow cytometry data analysis and in vitro functional assays and helped with manuscript preparation. Nadia Slisarenko and Giovanni Gerrets helped with sample collection and processing and data analysis. Elizabeth S. Didier and Marcelo J. Kuroda provided samples and contributed to the study design. Patricia Kissinger performed the statistical data analyses. Ronald S. Veazey and S. Michal Jazwinski helped with overall data interpretation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. All authors helped edit and reviewed the final manuscript.

Funding information

This study was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences grant P20 GM103629, as well as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) base grant for TNPRC OD011104-54. The support of NIH grants U42 OD010568 and U42 OD024282 for the macaque breeding colony at TNPRC and additional support from the NIH grants AI097059, AG052349, HL139278 funded studies is acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics statement

This study was performed using samples collected from nonhuman primates. All procedures were approved by the TNPRC Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, Animal Welfare Assurance A-4499-01, and were performed in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council, 2011. The TNPRC maintains an AAALAC-I accredited animal care and use program.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11357_2019_99_Fig10_ESM.png (136 kb)

Circulating levels of γ-chain cytokines and growth factors in healthy young, aging and old group of macaques. Data were obtained using Luminex multiplex cytokine assays for cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. (a) The common cytokine receptor gamma-chain family (γ-chain) cytokines including IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 levels shown in plasma from rhesus macaques stratified into 3 age-groups comprising young adults 5–10 years (blue bars; n = 18), aging adults 15–20 years (green bars; n = 15), and old adults ≥20 years old (red bars; n = 11). (b) Results are shown for means (+ S.E.M.) of growth factors including the neurotrophic factors platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); as well as for the angiogenic growth factors fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A & VEGF-D). No significant differences were found between the three age groups as determined by Mann-Whitney test. (PNG 136 kb)

11357_2019_99_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (1.1 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 1086 kb)
11357_2019_99_Fig11_ESM.png (94 kb)

Effect of age on frequencies of circulating T cells, NK cells and innate lymphoid cells. Frequencies are shown for (a) adaptive immune cell subsets including total CD3+ T and the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and (b) innate cells including CD3-CD8α + NK cells and lineage-negative CD127+ ILCs in PBMCs from 12 young macaques (black bars) and 8 aging/old macaques >15 years old (gray bars). Comparisons were measured by Mann-Whitney test. (c) Spearman rank correlations were measured from results comparing age and frequencies of total CD3+ T, NK and ILCs were examined in the two groups of macaques using Spearman rank correlations. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. (PNG 93 kb)

11357_2019_99_MOESM2_ESM.tiff (471 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 471 kb)
11357_2019_99_Fig9_ESM.png (250 kb)

Intracellular cytokine production by T cell and NK cells in young and aging/older macaques (>15 years old). Results demonstrate the production of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-22 by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and NK cells from PBMC after 16 h stimulation with PMA/Ionomycin. Data obtained from PBMC of 12 young macaques (black bars) and 8 aging macaques (gray bars) and results were presented as means (+ S.E.M.) after subtraction of background levels from unstimulated cells incubated with medium alone. Significant differences between each group were determined by Mann-Whitney test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. (PNG 249 kb)

11357_2019_99_MOESM3_ESM.tiff (354 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 353 kb)


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Copyright information

© American Aging Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of MicrobiologyTulane National Primate Research CenterCovingtonUSA
  2. 2.School of Public Health & Tropical MedicineTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Center for Comparative Medicine and California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Division of Comparative PathologyTulane National Primate Research CenterCovingtonUSA
  5. 5.Tulane Center for AgingTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

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