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The enigmatic role of growth hormone in age-related diseases, cognition, and longevity

Abstract

Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and regulates various metabolic processes throughout the body. GH and IGF-1 levels are markedly reduced in older humans, leading some to hypothesize GH supplementation could be a viable “anti-aging” therapy. However, there is still much debate over the benefits and risks of GH administration. While an early study of GH administration reported reduced adiposity and lipid levels and increased bone mineral density, subsequent studies failed to show significant benefits. Conversely, other studies found positive effects of GH deficiency including extended life span, improved cognitive function, resistance to diseases such as cancer and diabetes, and improved insulin sensitivity despite a higher fat percentage. Thus, the roles of GH in aging and cognition remain unclear, and there is currently not enough evidence to support use of GH as an anti-aging or cognitive impairment therapy. Additional robust and longer-duration studies of efficacy and safety of GH administration are needed to determine if modulating GH levels could be a successful strategy for treating aging and age-related diseases.

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Funding

This work was supported by NIH grants AG059190 (M. M. M.), AG059846 (M. M. M.), AG13925 (J.L.K.), AG041122 (J.L.K.), AG31736 (Project 4: J.L.K.), and AG044396 (J.L.K.), Robert and Arlene Kogod, the Connor Group (J.L.K.), Robert J. and Theresa W. Ryan (J.L.K.), and the Ted Nash Long Life (J.L.K.) and Noaber Foundations (J.L.K.). N.M. is supported by a grants from the American Diabetes Association (7-13-GSK-01), the National Institutes of Health (AG030979, DK80157, DK089229, and DK080157), the San Antonio Nathan Shock Center (AG013319), and the San Antonio Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center (AG044271). Pathology Core in the San Antonio Nathan Shock Center: P30-AG013319 (Y. I.) also supported this work. D.M.H. is supported by AG037574, AG055026, AG057429; the American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR); and the Einstein Nathan Shock Center (P30 AG038072).

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Correspondence to Michal M. Masternak.

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Colon, G., Saccon, T., Schneider, A. et al. The enigmatic role of growth hormone in age-related diseases, cognition, and longevity. GeroScience 41, 759–774 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00096-w

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Keywords

  • Growth hormone
  • IGF-1
  • Aging
  • GH deficiency
  • Longevity
  • Cognition