Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The association of anxio-depressive disorders and depression with motoric cognitive risk syndrome: results from the baseline assessment of the Canadian longitudinal study on aging


Motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), anxio-depressive disorders (ADD), and depression are associated with cognitive complaint and slow gait speed. The study aims to examine (1) the association of ADD and depression with MCR, and (2) the influence of the type and the severity of ADD and age on this association in older adults. A total of 29,569 participants free from cognitive impairment with walking speed measure recruited at baseline in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) Comprehensive were selected in this cross-sectional study. They were separated into different sub-groups based on their age groups (i.e., 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, and ≥ 75) and the presence of MCR. Anxiety, mood, and depressive disorders (ADD) were assessed. Depression was defined by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 10. The overall prevalence of MCR was 7.0 % and was greater in the youngest age group (8.9 %) as compared to the other age groups (P < 0.05). There was a higher prevalence of ADD and depression in individuals with MCR compared to those without MCR for all age groups (P ≤ 0.001). Depression was significantly associated with MCR regardless of age group (odds ratio ≥ 3.65 with P ≤ 0.001). The association of ADD with MCR depended on the accumulation of disorders and not their type, and was weaker and more inconstant in the oldest age group as compared to younger age groups. MCR is associated with ADD and depression in both younger and older individuals. This association is stronger for depression in younger individuals.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1


  1. Allali G, Ayers EI, Verghese J (2015) Motoric cognitive risk syndrome subtypes and cognitive profiles. J Geront Series A: Biomed Sci Med Sci 71(3):378–384

  2. Andresen EM, Malmgren JA, Carter WB, Patrick DL (1994) Screening for depression in well older adults: evaluation of a short form of the CES-D. Am J Prev Med 10(2):77–84

  3. Baquero M, Martín N (2015) Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases. World J Clin Cases 3(8):682

  4. Beauchet O, Allali G, Annweiler C, Verghese J (2016a) Association of motoric cognitive risk syndrome with brain volumes: results from the GAIT study. J Gerontol Series A: Biomed Sci Med Sci 71(8):1081–1088

  5. Beauchet O, Annweiler C, Callisaya ML, De Cock A-M, Helbostad JL, Kressig RW et al (2016b) Poor gait performance and prediction of dementia: results from a meta-analysis. J Am Med Dir Assoc 17(6):482–490

  6. Callisaya ML, Ayers E, Barzilai N, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Lipton RB, Otahal P, Srikanth VK, Verghese J (2016) Motoric cognitive risk syndrome and falls risk: a multi-center study. J Alzheimers Dis 53(3):1043–1052

  7. Canada S. Table 13-10-0096-18 Mood disorders, by age group

  8. Canada S. Table 13-10-0465-01 Mental health indicators

  9. Canadian longitudinal study on aging – Etude longitudinale canadienne sur le vieillissement Canadian longitudinal study on aging;

  10. Doi T, Verghese J, Shimada H, Makizako H, Tsutsumimoto K, Hotta R, Nakakubo S, Suzuki T (2015) Motoric cognitive risk syndrome: prevalence and risk factors in Japanese seniors. J Am Med Dir Assoc 16(12):1103. e21–1103. e25

  11. Jessen F, Amariglio RE, Van Boxtel M, Breteler M, Ceccaldi M, Chételat G et al (2014) A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 10(6):844–852

  12. Knäuper B, Wittchen H-U (1994) Diagnosing major depression in the elderly: evidence for response bias in standardized diagnostic interviews? J Psychiatr Res 28(2):147–164

  13. Knoll AD, MacLennan RN (2017) Prevalence and correlates of depression in Canada: findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Canadian Psychology/psychologie canadienne 58(2):116

  14. Lyness JM, Cox C, Curry J, Conwell Y, King DA, Caine ED (1995) Older age and the underreporting of depressive symptoms. J Am Geriatr Soc 43(3):216–221

  15. Maguire FJ, Killane I, Creagh AP, Donoghue O, Kenny RA, Reilly RB (2018) Baseline association of motoric cognitive risk syndrome with sustained attention, memory, and global cognition. J Am Med Dir Assoc 19(1):53–58

  16. Moussavi S, Chatterji S, Verdes E, Tandon A, Patel V, Ustun B (2007) Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys. Lancet 370(9590):851–858

  17. Panza F, Frisardi V, Capurso C, D'introno A, Colacicco AM, Imbimbo BP et al (2010) Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: possible continuum? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 18(2):98–116

  18. Radloff LS (1977) The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1(3):385–401

  19. Raina PS, Wolfson C, Kirkland SA, Griffith LE, Oremus M, Patterson C, Tuokko H, Penning M, Balion CM, Hogan D, Wister A, Payette H, Shannon H, Brazil K (2009) The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA). Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement 28(3):221–229

  20. Scherder E, Eggermont L, Swaab D, van Heuvelen M, Kamsma Y, de Greef M, van Wijck R, Mulder T (2007) Gait in ageing and associated dementias; its relationship with cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 31(4):485–497

  21. Sekhon H, Allali G, Launay C, Chabot J, Beauchet O (2017) The spectrum of pre-dementia stages: cognitive profile of motoric cognitive risk syndrome and relationship with mild cognitive impairment. Eur J Neurol 24(8):1047–1054

  22. Verghese J, Wang C, Lipton RB, Holtzer R (2012) Motoric cognitive risk syndrome and the risk of dementia. J Gerontol Series A: Biomed Sci Med Sci 68(4):412–418

  23. Verghese J, Annweiler C, Ayers E, Barzilai N, Beauchet O, Bennett DA, Bridenbaugh SA, Buchman AS, Callisaya ML, Camicioli R, Capistrant B, Chatterji S, de Cock AM, Ferrucci L, Giladi N, Guralnik JM, Hausdorff JM, Holtzer R, Kim KW, Kowal P, Kressig RW, Lim JY, Lord S, Meguro K, Montero-Odasso M, Muir-Hunter SW, Noone ML, Rochester L, Srikanth V, Wang C (2014a) Motoric cognitive risk syndrome: multicountry prevalence and dementia risk. Neurology. 83(8):718–726

  24. Verghese J, Ayers E, Barzilai N, Bennett DA, Buchman AS, Holtzer R et al (2014b) Motoric cognitive risk syndrome: multicenter incidence study. Neurology.

  25. Wang N, Allali G, Kesavadas C, Noone ML, Pradeep VG, Blumen HM, Verghese J (2016) Cerebral small vessel disease and motoric cognitive risk syndrome: results from the Kerala-Einstein study. J Alzheimers Dis 50(3):699–707

  26. Winter Y, Korchounov A, Zhukova TV, Bertschi NE (2011) Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2(1):27–32

Download references


This research was made possible using the data collected by the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Funding for the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is provided by the Government of Canada through the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) under grant reference: LSA 9447 and the Canada Foundation for Innovation. This research has been conducted using the CLSA dataset [Baseline Comprehensive dataset version 3.0], under Application No. 180902. The CLSA is led by Drs. Parminder Raina, Christina Wolfson and Susan Kirkland.

Author information

Study design HS and OB. Study conduct: HS and OB. Data collection: CLSA team. Data interpretation: HS and OB. Drafting manuscript: HS and OB. Revising manuscript content: GA. Approving final version of manuscript HS, OB, and GA. HS takes responsibility for the integrity of the data analysis.

Correspondence to Olivier Beauchet.

Ethics declarations

The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards set forth in the Helsinki Declaration (1983). Participants in the study were included after obtaining their written and informed consent for the study. The Jewish General Hospital Ethics Committee approved the study protocol.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sekhon, H., Allali, G. & Beauchet, O. The association of anxio-depressive disorders and depression with motoric cognitive risk syndrome: results from the baseline assessment of the Canadian longitudinal study on aging. GeroScience 41, 409–418 (2019).

Download citation


  • Epidemiology
  • Walking speed
  • Cognitive complaint
  • Depression
  • Older adults
  • CLSA