, 37:124 | Cite as

Do frailty and cognitive impairment affect dual-task cost during walking in the oldest old institutionalized patients?

  • Eduardo L. Cadore
  • Alvaro Casas-Herrero
  • Fabricio Zambom-Ferraresi
  • Alicia Martínez-Ramírez
  • Nora Millor
  • Marisol Gómez
  • Ana B. Bays Moneo
  • Mikel Izquierdo


The objective of this study was to investigate dual-task costs in several elderly populations, including robust oldest old, frail oldest old with MCI, frail oldest old without MCI, and frail elderly with dementia. Sixty-four elderly men and women categorized into frail without MCI (age 93.4 ± 3.2 years, n = 20), frail with MCI (age 92.4 ± 4.2 years, n = 13), robust (age 88.2 ± 4.1 years, n = 10), and patients with dementia (age 88.1 ± 5.1 years, n = 21). Five-meter gait ability and timed-up-and-go (TUG) tests with single and dual-task performance were assessed in the groups. Dual-task cost in both 5-m habitual gait velocity test and TUG test was calculated by the time differences between single and dual-task performance. The robust group exhibited better 5-m gait and TUG test performances in the single and dual-task conditions compared with the other three groups (P < 0.001), and the frail and frail + MCI groups exhibited better performances than the dementia group (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between the frail and frail + MCI groups. However, all groups exhibited lower gait velocities in the verbal and arithmetic task conditions, but the dual-task cost of the groups were similar. Robust individuals exhibited superior single and dual-task walking performances than the other three groups, and the frail and frail + MCI individuals exhibited performances that were superior to those of the patients with dementia. However, the dual-task costs, i.e., the changes in gait performance when elderly participants switch from a single to a dual task, were similar among all four of the investigated groups. Therefore, these results demonstrated that the magnitude of the impairment in gait pattern is independent of frailty and cognitive impairment status.


Frailty Oldest old Cognitive impairment Dual-task walking Dementia 



This work was supported in part by the Spanish Department of Health and Institute Carlos III of the Government of Spain [Spanish Net on Aging and frailty; (RETICEF)] under grant numbered RD12/043/0002].

Compliance with ethical standards

All subjects or their legal guardians agreed to participate in the trial and completed an ethical consent form. The study was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Public University of Navarra, Spain.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© American Aging Association 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo L. Cadore
    • 1
  • Alvaro Casas-Herrero
    • 2
  • Fabricio Zambom-Ferraresi
    • 3
  • Alicia Martínez-Ramírez
    • 4
  • Nora Millor
    • 4
  • Marisol Gómez
    • 4
  • Ana B. Bays Moneo
    • 3
  • Mikel Izquierdo
    • 3
  1. 1.Exercise Research LaboratoryFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Geriatric MedicineComplejo Hospitalario de NavarraPamplonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Health SciencesPublic University of NavarraTudelaSpain
  4. 4.Mathematics DepartmentPublic University of NavarraNavarreSpain

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