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Ambient temperature reduction extends lifespan via activating cellular degradation activity in an annual fish (Nothobranchius rachovii)


Ambient temperature reduction (ATR) can extend the lifespan of organisms, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, cellular degradation activity was evaluated in the muscle of an annual fish (Nothobranchius rachovii) reared under high (30 °C), moderate (25 °C), and low (20 °C) ambient temperatures. The results showed the following: (i) the activity of the 20S proteasome and the expression of polyubiquitin aggregates increased with ATR, whereas 20S proteasome expression did not change; (ii) the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) increased with ATR; (iii) the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2a (Lamp 2a) increased with ATR, whereas the expression of the 70-kD heat shock cognate protein (Hsc 70) decreased with ATR; (iv) lysosome activity increased with ATR, whereas the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein type 1 (Lamp 1) did not change with ATR; and (v) the expression of molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) as well as the p-mTOR/mTOR ratio did not change with ATR. These findings indicate that ATR activates cellular degradation activity, constituting part of the mechanism underlying the longevity-promoting effects of ATR in N. rachovii.

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Ambient temperature reduction


Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II

Lamp 2a:

Lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2a

Hsc 70:

70-kD heat shock cognate protein

Lamp 1:

Lysosome-associated membrane protein type 1


Molecular target of rapamycin


Phosphorylated mTOR


Reactive oxygen species




Glutathione peroxidase


Manganese-superoxide dismutase


Chaperone-mediated autophagy


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This work was supported by grants NSC 99-2311-B-182-002-MY3, CMRPD1C0081, and CMRPD180353 from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, and the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan.

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that there are no conflicts of interest in relation to the subject of this study.

Author contributions

CH conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, and prepared the manuscript; CH and CL performed the experiments.

Author information

Correspondence to Chin-Yuan Hsu.

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Lu, C., Hsu, C. Ambient temperature reduction extends lifespan via activating cellular degradation activity in an annual fish (Nothobranchius rachovii). AGE 37, 33 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-015-9775-z

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  • Aging
  • Temperature
  • Degradation
  • Autophagy
  • Fish