Advertisement

AGE

, 37:6 | Cite as

Neuromuscular adaptations to water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women: effects of intrasession exercise sequence

  • Stephanie S. PintoEmail author
  • Cristine L. Alberton
  • Natália C. Bagatini
  • Paula Zaffari
  • Eduardo L. Cadore
  • Régis Radaelli
  • Bruno M. Baroni
  • Fábio J. Lanferdini
  • Rodrigo Ferrari
  • Ana Carolina Kanitz
  • Ronei S. Pinto
  • Marco Aurélio Vaz
  • Luiz Fernando M. Kruel
Article

Abstract

This study investigated the effects of different exercise sequences on the neuromuscular adaptations induced by water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women. Twenty-one healthy postmenopausal women (57.14 ± 2.43 years) were randomly placed into two water-based concurrent training groups: resistance training prior to (RA, n = 10) or after (AR, n = 11) aerobic training. Subjects performed resistance and aerobic training twice a week over 12 weeks, performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper (elbow flexors) and lower-body (knee extensors) one-repetition maximal test (1RM) and peak torque (PT) (knee extensors) were evaluated. The muscle thickness (MT) of upper (biceps brachii) and lower-body (vastus lateralis) was determined by ultrasonography. Moreover, the maximal and submaximal (neuromuscular economy) electromyographic activity (EMG) of lower-body (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was measured. Both RA and AR groups increased the upper- and lower-body 1RM and PT, while the lower-body 1RM increases observed in the RA was greater than AR (34.62 ± 13.51 vs. 14.16 ± 13.68 %). RA and AR showed similar MT increases in upper- and lower-body muscles evaluated. In addition, significant improvements in the maximal and submaximal EMG of lower-body muscles in both RA and AR were found, with no differences between groups. Both exercise sequences in water-based concurrent training presented relevant improvements to promote health and physical fitness in postmenopausal women. However, the exercise sequence resistance–aerobic optimizes the strength gains in lower limbs.

Keywords

Combined training Aquatic exercise Electromyography Muscle thickness Muscle strength Aerobic exercise Resistance exercise 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank specially to FAPERGS, CAPES, and CNPq Brazilian Government Associations for its support to this project. We also gratefully acknowledge all the subjects who participated in this research and made this project possible.

References

  1. Aagaard P, Suetta C, Caserotti P, Magnusson SP, Kjaer M (2010) Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20:49–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abe T, DeHoyos DV, Pollock ML, Garzarella L (2000) Time course for strength and muscle thickness changes following upper and lower body resistance training in men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:174–180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alberton CL, Tartaruga MP, Pinto SS, Cadore EL, Haberland AA, Finatto P, Kruel LFM (2013a) Vertical ground reaction force during water exercises performed at different intensities. Int J Sports Med 34:881–887CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alberton CL, Kanitz AC, Pinto SS, Antunes AH, Finatto P, Cadore EL, Kruel LFM (2013b) Determining the anaerobic threshold in water aerobic exercises: a comparison between the heart rate deflection point and the ventilatory method. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 53:358–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baroni BM, Rodrigues R, Franke RA, Geremia JM, Rassier DE, Vaz MA (2013) Time course of neuromuscular adaptations to knee extensor eccentric training. Int J Sports Med 34:904–911CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell GJ, Syrotuik D, Socha T, Maclean I, Quinney H (1997) Effect of strength and endurance training on strength, testosterone, and cortisol. J Strength Cond Res 11:57–64Google Scholar
  7. Bell GJ, Syrotuik D, Martin TP, Burnham R, Quinney H (2000) Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal muscle properties and hormone concentrations in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:418–427CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bemben DA, Bemben MG (2000) Effects of resistance exercise and body mass index on lipoprotein-lipid patterns of postmenopausal women. J Strength Cond Res 14:80–85Google Scholar
  9. Bento PCB, Pereira G, Ugrinowitsch C, Rodacki ALF (2012) The effects of a water-based exercise program on strength and functionality of older adults. J Aging Phys Act 20:469–483Google Scholar
  10. Bergamin M, Zanuso S, Alvar BA, Ermolao A, Zaccaria M (2012) Is water-based exercise training sufficient to improve physical fitness in the elderly? Eur Rev Aging Phys Act 9:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cadore EL, Pinto RS, Lhullier FLR, Correa CS, Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Almeida APV, Tartaruga MP, Silva EM, Kruel LFM (2010) Physiological effects of concurrent training in elderly men. Int J Sports Med 31:689–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cadore EL, Pinto RS, Lhullier FLR, Correa CS, Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Almeida APV, Tartaruga MP, Silva EM, Kruel LFM (2011) Effects of strength, endurance and concurrent training on aerobic power and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men. J Strength Cond Res 25:758–766CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cadore EL, Izquierdo M, Alberton CL, Pinto RS, Conceição M, Cunha G, Radaelli R, Bottaro M, Trindade GT, Kruel LF (2012) Strength prior to endurance intra-session exercise sequence optimizes neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains in elderly men. Exp Gerontol 47:164–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cadore EL, Izquierdo M, Pinto SS, Alberton CL, Pinto RS, Baroni BM, Vaz MA, Lanferdini FJ, Radaelli R, González-Izal M, Bottaro M, Kruel LF (2013) Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent training in the elderly: effects of intrasession exercise sequence. Age (Dordr) 35:891–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cadore EL, Izquierdo M (2013) How to simultaneously optimize muscle strength, power, functional capacity, and cardiovascular gains in the elderly: an update. Age (Dordr) 35:2329–2344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christensen K, Doblhammer G, Rau R, Vaupel JW (2009) Ageing populations: the challenges ahead. Lancet 374:1196–1208CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dolezal BA, Potteiger JA (1998) Concurrent resistance and endurance training influence basal metabolic rate in non-dieting individuals. J Appl Physiol 85:695–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fleg JL, Lakatta EG (1988) Role of muscle loss in the age-associated reduction in VO2max. J Appl Physiol 65:1147–1151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fukunaga T, Miayatani M, Tachi M, Kouzaki M, Kawakami Y, Kanehisa H (2001) Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 172:249–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hagey AR, Warren MP (2008) Role of exercise and nutrition in menopause. Clin Obstet Gynecol 51:627–641CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Häkkinen K, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Gorostiaga EM, Izquierdo M, Rusko H, Mikkola J, Häkkinen A, Valkeinen H, Kaarakainen E, Romu S, Erola V, Ahtiainen J, Paavolainen L (2003) Neuromuscular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training versus strength training. J Appl Physiol 89:42–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Howley ET, Basset DR Jr, Welch HG (1995) Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:1292–1301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hug F, Decherchi P, Narqueste T, Jammes Y (2004) EMG versus oxygen uptake during cycling exercise in trained and untrained subjects. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 14:187–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Izquierdo M, Häkkinen K, Antón A, Garrues M, Ibañez J, Ruesta M, Gorostiaga EM (2001) Maximal strength and power, endurance performance, and serum hormones in middle-aged and elderly men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1577–1587CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Izquierdo M, Häkkinen K, Ibanez J, Antón A, Garrués M, Ruesta M, Gorostiaga EM (2003) Effects of strength training on submaximal and maximal endurance performance capacity in middle-aged and older men. J Strength Cond Res 17:129–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Izquierdo M, Ibañez J, Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ, Larrión JL, Gorostiaga EM (2004) Once weekly combined resistance and cardiovascular training in healthy older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:435–443CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Jackson AS, Pollock ML, Ward A (1980) Generalized equations for predicting body density of women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 12:175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kraemer WJ, Patton JF, Gordon SE, Harman EA, Deschenes MR, Reynolds K, Newton RU, Tripplet NT, Dziados JE (1995) Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. J Appl Physiol 78:976–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kruel LFM, Barella RE, Muller FG, Brentano MA, Figueiredo PP, Cardoso A, Severo CR (2005) Effects of resistance training in women engaged in hydrogymnastics programs. Rev Bras Fisiol Exerc 4:32–38Google Scholar
  30. Meredith-Jones K, Waters D, Legge M, Jones L (2011) Upright water-based exercise to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health: a qualitative review. Complement Ther Med 19:93–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Miyatani M, Kanehisa H, Kuno S, Nishijima T, Fukunaga T (2002) Validity of ultrasonograph muscle thickness measurements for estimating muscle volume of knee extensors in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 86:203–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Narici MV, Roi GS, Landoni L, Minetti AE, Cerretelli P (1989) Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps. Eur J Appl Physiol 59:310–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pinto SS, Cadore EL, Alberton CL, Zaffari P, Bagatini NC, Baroni BM, Radaelli R, Lanferdini FJ, Colado JC, Pinto RS, Vaz MA, Bottaro M, Kruel LFM (2014) Effects of intra-session exercise sequence during water-based concurrent training. Int J Sports Med 35:41–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Pöyhönen T, Sipilä S, Keskinen KL, Hautala A, Savolainen J, Mälkiä E (2002) Effects of aquatic resistance training on neuromuscular performance in healthy women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:2103–2109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Siri WE (1993) Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. Nutrition 9:480–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Snijders T, Verdijk LB, van Loon LJC (2009) The impact of sarcopenia and exercise training on skeletal muscle satellite cells. Ageing Res Rev 8:328–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Takeshima N, Rogers ME, Watanabe WF, Brechue WF, Okada A, Yamada T, Islam MM, Hayano J (2002) Water-based exercise improves health-related aspects of fitness in older women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:544–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsourlou T, Benik A, Dipla K, Zafeiridis A, Kellis S (2006) The effects of a twenty-four-week aquatic training program on muscular strength performance in healthy elderly women. J Strength Cond Res 20:811–818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wasserman K, Whipp BJ, Koyal SN, Beaver WL (1973) Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise. J Appl Physiol 35:236–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Wood RH, Reyes R, Welsch MA, Favarolo-Sabatier J, Sabatier M, Lee CM, Johnson LG, Hooper PF (2001) Concurrent cardiovascular and resistance training in healthy older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1751–1758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Aging Association 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie S. Pinto
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cristine L. Alberton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Natália C. Bagatini
    • 1
  • Paula Zaffari
    • 1
  • Eduardo L. Cadore
    • 1
  • Régis Radaelli
    • 1
  • Bruno M. Baroni
    • 1
    • 4
  • Fábio J. Lanferdini
    • 1
  • Rodrigo Ferrari
    • 3
  • Ana Carolina Kanitz
    • 1
  • Ronei S. Pinto
    • 1
  • Marco Aurélio Vaz
    • 1
  • Luiz Fernando M. Kruel
    • 1
  1. 1.Exercise Research Laboratory, Physical Education SchoolFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Neuromuscular Evaluation Laboratory, Physical Education SchoolFederal University of PelotasPelotasBrazil
  3. 3.Exercise Pathophysiology Research LaboratoryHospital de Clínicas de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Physical TherapyFederal University of Health Sciences of Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil

Personalised recommendations