, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 2329–2344 | Cite as

How to simultaneously optimize muscle strength, power, functional capacity, and cardiovascular gains in the elderly: an update

  • Cadore EL
  • Izquierdo MEmail author


The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature that investigated concurrent training adaptations in elderly populations, with the aim of identifying the optimal combination of both training program variables (i.e., strength and endurance) to avoid or minimize the interference effect in the elderly. Scielo, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Concurrent training is the most effective strategy by which to improve neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions as well as functional capacity in the elderly. The volume and frequency of training appears to play a critical role in concurrent training-induced adaptations in elderly subjects. Furthermore, new evidence indicates that the intra-session exercise order may influence the magnitude of physiological adaptations. Despite the interference effect on strength gains that is caused by concurrent training, this type of training is advantageous in that the combination of strength and endurance training produces both neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations in the elderly. The interference phenomenon may be observed in elderly subjects when a moderate weekly volume of concurrent training (i.e., three times per week) is performed. However, even with the occurrence of this phenomenon, the performance of three concurrent training sessions per week appears to optimize the strength gains in relative brief periods of training (12 weeks). Moreover, performing strength prior to endurance exercise may optimize both neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains.


Aging Combined training Physical training Neural adaptations Muscle mass 



The authors are indebted to the Spanish Department of Health and Institute Carlos III of the Government of Spain [Spanish Net on Aging and frailty; (RETICEF)] and the Department of Health of the Government of Navarre and Economy and Competitiveness Department of the Government of Spain for financing this research, with grants numbered RD06/013/1003, 87/2010, and DEP2011-24105, respectively. The authors are also indebted to the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES—Brazil).


  1. Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Andersen JL, Magnusson P, Dyhre-Poulsen P (2002a) Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training. J Appl Physiol 93:1318–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Andersen JL, Magnusson P, Dyhre-Poulsen P (2002b) Neural adaptation to resistance training: changes in evoked V-wave and H-reflex responses. J Appl Physiol 92:2309–2318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aagaard P, Suetta C, Caserotti P, Magnusson SP, Kjaer M (2010) Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20:49–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Astrand I, Astrand PO, Hallback I, Kilbom A (1973) Reduction in maximal oxygen uptake with age. J Appl Physiol 35:649–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Balducci S, Leonetti F, Di Mario U, Fallucca F (2004) Is a long-term aerobic plus resistance training program feasible for and effective on metabolic profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 27:841–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beere PA, Russell SD, Morey MC, Kitzman DW, Higginbothan MB (1999) Aerobic exercise training can reverse age-related peripheral circulatory changes in healthy older men. Circulation 100:1085–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell GJ, Syrotuik D, Socha T, Maclean I, Quinney HÁ (1997) Effect of strength and endurance training on strength, testosterone, and cortisol. J Strength Cond Res 11:57–64Google Scholar
  8. Bell GJ, Syrotuik D, Martin TP, Burnham R, Quinney HÁ (2000) Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal muscle properties and hormone concentrations in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:418–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berent R, von Duvillard SP, Crouse SF, Sinzinger H, Green JS, Schmid P (2011) Resistance training dose response in combined endurance-resistance training in patients with cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 92:1527–1533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berent R, von Duvillard SP, Crouse SF, Auer J, Green JS, Niebauer J, Sinzinger H, Schmid P (2012) Discontinuation of combined resistance-endurance training increases cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Cardiol 156:229–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Binder EF, Brown M, Sinacore DR, Steger-May K, Yarasheski KE, Schechtman KB (2004) Effects of extended outpatient rehabilitation after hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292:837–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bottaro M, Machado SN, Nogueira W, Scales R, Veloso J (2007) Effect of high versus low-velocity resistance training on muscular fitness and functional performance in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol 99:257–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brentano MA, Cadore EL, Silva EM, Ambrosini AB, Coertjens M, Petkowics R, Viero I, Kruel LFM (2008) Physiological adaptations to strength and circuit training in postmenopausal women with bone loss. J Strength Cond Res 22:1816–1825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cadore EL, Pinto RS, Lhullier FLR, Correa CS, Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Almeida APV, Tartaruga MP, Silva EM, Kruel LFM (2010) Physiological effects of concurrent training in elderly men. Int J Sports Med 31:689–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cadore EL, Pinto RS, Lhullier FLR, Correa CS, Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Almeida APV, Tartaruga MP, Silva EM, Kruel LFM (2011a) Effects of strength, endurance and concurrent training on aerobic power and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men. J Strength Cond Res 25:758–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cadore EL, Pinto RS, Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Lhullier FLR, Tartaruga MP, Correa CS, Almeida APV, Silva EM, Laitano O, Kruel LFM (2011b) Neuromuscular economy, strength and endurance in healthy elderly men. J Strength Cond Res 25:997–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cadore EL, Izquierdo M, Alberton CL, Pinto RS, Conceição M, Cunha G, Radaelli R, Bottaro M, Trindade GT, Kruel LF (2012a) Strength prior to endurance intra-session exercise sequence optimizes neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains in elderly men. Exp Gerontol 47:164–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cadore EL, Izquierdo M, Pinto SS, Alberton CL, Pinto RS, Baroni BM, Vaz MA, Lanferdini FJ, Radaelli R, González-Izal M, Bottaro M, Kruel LF (2012b) Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent training in the elderly: effects of intrasession exercise sequence. Age (Dordr). doi: 10.1007/s11357-012-9405-y
  19. Cadore EL, Izquierdo M, Dos Santos MG, Martins JB, Lhullier FL, Pinto RS, Silva RF, Kruel LFM (2012c) Hormonal responses to concurrent strength and endurance training with different exercise orders. J Strength Cond Res 26(12):3281–3288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cadore EL, Izquierdo M, Conceição M, Radaelli R, Pinto RS, Baroni BM, Vaz MA, Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Cunha G, Bottaro M, Kruel LF (2012d) Echo intensity is associated with skeletal muscle power and cardiovascular performance in elderly men. Exp Gerontol 47:473–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cannon J, Kay D, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE (2007) Comparative effects of resistance training on peak isometric torque, muscle hypertrophy, voluntary activation and surface EMG between young and elderly women. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 27:91–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Christensen K, Doblhammer G, Rau R, Vaupel JW (2009) Ageing populations: the challenges ahead. Lancet 374:1196–1208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Church TS, Blair SN, Cocreham S, Johannsen N, Johnson W, Kramer K, Mikus CR, Myers V, Nauta M, Rodarte RQ, Sparks L, Thompson A, Earnest CP (2010) Effects of aerobic and resistance training on hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 304:2253–2262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Correa CS, Laroche DP, Cadore EL, Reischak-Oliveira A, Bottaro M, Kruel LFM, Tartaruga MP, Radaelli R, Wilhelm EN, Lacerda FC, Gaya AR, Pinto RS (2012) 3 types of strength training in older women. Int J Sports Med 33(12):962–969. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1312648 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dolezal BA, Potteiger JA (1998) Concurrent resistance and endurance training influence basal metabolic rate in nondieting individuals. J Appl Physiol 85:695–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Duncan K, Pozehl B, Norman JF, Hertzog M (2011) A self-directed adherence management program for patients with heart failure completing combined aerobic and resistance exercise training. Appl Nurs Res 24:207–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Earles DR, Judge JO, Gunnarsson OT (2001) Velocity training induces power-specific adaptations in highly functioning older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82:872–878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Figueroa A, Park SY, Seo DY, Sanchez-Gonzalez MA, Baek YH (2011) Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Menopause 18:980–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fleg JL, Lakatta EG (1988) Role of muscle loss in the age-associated reduction in VO2max. J Appl Physiol 65:1147–1151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Frontera WR, Meredith CN, O’Reilly KP, Evans WJ (1990) Strength training and determinants of VO2max in older men. J Appl Physiol 68:329–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Frontera WR, Suh D, Krivickas LS, Hughes VA, Goldstein R, Roubenoff R (2000) Skeletal muscle fiber quality in older men and women. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 279:C611–C618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. García-Pallares J, Izquierdo M (2011) Strategies to optimize concurrent training of strength and aerobic fitness for rowing and canoeing. Sports Med 41:329–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. García-Pallarés J, Sánchez-Medina L, Pérez CE, Izquierdo-Gabarren M, Izquierdo M (2010) Physiological effects of tapering and detraining in world-class kayakers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:1209–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gary RA, Cress ME, Higgins MK, Smith AL, Dunbar SB (2012) A combined aerobic and resistance exercise program improves physical functional performance in patients with heart failure: a pilot study. J Cardiovasc Nurs 27(5):418–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Häkkinen K, Kallinen M, Linnamo V, Pastinen UM, Newton RU, Kraemer WJ (1996) Neuromuscular adaptations during bilateral versus unilateral strength training in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Acta Physiol Scand 158:77–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Häkkinen K, Alen M, Kallinen M (1998a) Muscle CSA, force production, and activation of leg extensors during isometric and dynamic actions in middle-aged and older people. JAPA 6:232–247Google Scholar
  37. Häkkinen K, Kallinen M, Izquierdo M, Jokelainen K, Lassila H, Mälkiä E, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, Alen M (1998b) Changes in agonist–antagonist EMG, muscle CSA, and force during strength training in middle-aged and older people. J Appl Physiol 84:1341–1349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Häkkinen K, Alen M, Kallinen M, Newton RU, Kraemer WJ (2000) Neuromuscular adaptation during prolonged strength training, detraining and re-strength-training in middle-aged and elderly people. Eur J Appl Physiol 83:51–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, Alen M (2001) Changes in electromyografic activity, muscle fibre and force production characteristics during heavy resistance/power strength training in middle-aged and older men and women. Acta Physiol Scand 171:51–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Häkkinen K, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Gorostiaga EM, Izquierdo M, Rusko H, Mikkola J, Häkkinen A, Valkeinen H, Kaarakainen E, Romu S, Erola V, Ahtiainen J, Paavolainen L (2003a) Neuromuscular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training versus strength training. J Appl Physiol 89:42–52Google Scholar
  41. Häkkinen A, Hannonen P, Nyman K, Lyyski T, Häkkinen K (2003b) Effects of concurrent strength and endurance training in women with early or longstanding rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with healthy subjects. Arthritis Rheum 49:789–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hartman MJ, Fields DA, Byrne NM, Hunter GR (2007) Resistance training improves metabolic economy during functional tasks in older adults. J Strength Cond Res 21:91–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Henwood TR, Riek S, Taaffe DR (2008) Strength versus muscle power specific resistance training in community-dwelling older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 63:83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Holviala J, Häkkinen A, Karavirta L, Nyman K, Izquierdo M, Gorostiaga EM, Avela J, Korhonen J, Knuutila V-P, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K (2010) Effects of combined strength and endurance training on treadmill load carrying walking performance in aging men. J Strength Cond Res 24:1584–1595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Holviala J, Kraemer WJ, Sillampää E, Karpinen H, Avela J, Kauhanen A, Häkkinen A, Häkkinen K (2011) Effects of strength, endurance and combined training on muscle strength, walking speed and dynamic balance in aging men. Eur J Appl Physiol 112:1335–1347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Izquierdo M, Aguado X, Gonzalez R, López JL, Häkkinen K (1999a) Maximal and explosive force production capacity and balance performance in men of different ages. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 79:260–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Izquierdo M, Casas A, Zambom F, Millor N, Martínez-Ramirez A, Marcellán T, Gordoa AR, Cía F, Lecumberri P, Gómez M (2012) Resistance training induces positive effects on risk of falls, muscle strength, and dual task performance in oldest old institutionalized frail patients. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:669Google Scholar
  48. Izquierdo M, Ibanez J, Gorostiaga EM, Garrues M, Zuñiga A, Antón A, Larrión JL, Häkkinen K (1999b) Maximal strength and power characteristics in isometric and dynamic actions of upper and lower extremities in middle-aged and older med. Acta Physiol Scand 167:57–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Izquierdo M, Häkkinen K, Antón A, Garrues M, Ibañez J, Ruesta M, Gorostiaga EM (2001a) Maximal strength and power, endurance performance, and serum hormones in middle-aged and elderly men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1577–1587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Izquierdo M, Häkkinen K, Ibañez J, Garrues M, Antón A, Zúniga A, Larrión JL, Gorostiaga EM (2001b) Effects of strength training on muscle power and serum hormones in middle-aged and older men. J Appl Physiol 90:1497–1507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Izquierdo M, Hakkinen K, Ibanez J, Antón A, Garrués M, Ruesta M, Gorostiaga EM (2003) Effects of strength training on submaximal and maximal endurance performance capacity in middle-aged and older men. J Strength Cond Res 17:129–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Izquierdo M, Ibañez J, Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ, Larrión JL, Gorostiaga EM (2004) Once weekly combined resistance and cardiovascular training in healthy older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:435–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Izquierdo M, Häkkinen K, Ibañez J, Kraemer WJ, Gorostiaga EM (2005) Effects of combined resistance and cardiovascular training on strength, power, muscle cross-sectional area, and endurance markers in middle-aged men. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:70–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Izquierdo-Gabarren M, Expósito RGT, García-Pallarés J, Sanches-Medina L, Villarreal ESS, Izquierdo M (2010) Concurrent endurance and strength training not to failure optimizes performance gains. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42:1191–1199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kamen G, Knight CA (2004) Training-related adaptations in motor unit discharge rate in young and older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59:1334–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Karavirta L, Häkkinen A, Sillanpää E, Garcia-Lopez D, Kauhanen A, Haapasaari A, Alen M, Pakarinen A, Kraemer WJ, Izquierdo M, Gorostiaga EM, Häkkinen K (2011) Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40–67-year-old men. Scand J Med Sci Sports 21:402–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Karavirta L, Tulppo MP, Laaksonen DE, Nyman K, Laukkanen RT, Kinnunen H, Häkkinen A, Häkkinen K (2009) Heart rate dynamics after combined endurance and strength training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:1436–1443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Knight CA, Kamen G (2001) Adaptations in muscle activation of the knee extensor muscle with strength training in young and older adults. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 11:405–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kraemer WJ, Patton JF, Gordon SE, Harman EA, Deschenes MR, Reynolds K, Newton RU, Tripplet NT, Dziados JE (1995) Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. J Appl Physiol 78:976–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. McCarthy JP, Pozniak MA, Agre JC (2002) Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent strength and endurance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:511–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Meredith CN, Frontera WR, Fisher EC, Hughes VA, Herland JC, Edwards J, Evans WJ (1989) Peripheral effects of endurance training in young and old subjects. J Appl Physiol 66:2844–2849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mosti MP, Wang E, Wiggen ØN, Helgerud J, Hoff J (2011) Concurrent strength and endurance training improves physical capacity in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Scand J Med Sci Sports 21:308–134Google Scholar
  63. Motl RW, Smith DC, Elliott J, Weikert M, Dlugonski D, Sosnoff JJ (2012) Combined training improves walking mobility in persons with significant disability from multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. J Neurol Phys Ther 36:32–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Miszko TA, Cress ME, Slade JM, Covey CJ, Agrawal SK, Doerr CE (2003) Effect of strength and power training on physical function in community-dwelling older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58:171–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Narici MV, Maganaris C, Reeves N (2005) Myotendinous alterations and effects of resistive loading in old age. Scand J Med Sci Sports 15:392–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Orr R, de Vos NJ, Singh NA, Ross DA, Stavrinos TM, Fiatarone-Singh MA (2006) Power training improves balance in healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 61:78–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Pahor M, Blair SN, Espeland M, Fielding R, Gill TM, Guralnik JM, Hadley EC, King AC, Kritchevsky SB, Maraldi C, Miller ME, Newman AB, Rjeski WJ, Romashkan S, Studenski S (2006) Effects of a physical activity intervention of measures of physical performance: results of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 61:1157–1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Pereira A, Izquierdo M, Silva AJ, Costa AM, Bastos E, González-Badillo JJ, Marques MC (2012) Effects of high-speed power training on functional capacity and muscle performance in older women. Exp Gerontol 47:250–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Gordon PM (2010) Resistance exercise for muscular strength in older adults: a meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev 9:226–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Pinto AL, Oliveira NC, Gualano B, Christmann RB, Painelli VS, Artioli GG, Prado DM, Lima FR (2011) Efficacy and safety of concurrent training in systemic sclerosis. J Strength Cond Res 25:1423–1428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Reeves ND, Narici MV, Maganaris CN (2004) Effect of resistance training on skeletal muscle-specific force in elderly humans. J Appl Physiol 96:885–892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Reid KF, Fielding RA (2012) Skeletal muscle power and functioning in older adults. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 40:1–12Google Scholar
  73. Rejeski WJ, Marsh AP, Chmelo E, Prescott AJ, Dobrosielski M, Walkup MP, Espeland M, Miller ME, Kritchevsky S (2009) The lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot (life-p): 2-year follow-up. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 64:462–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sayers SP, Bean J, Cuoco A, Le Brasseur NK, Jette A, Fielding RA (2003) Changes in function and disability after resistance training: does velocity matter? A pilot study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 82:605–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Seals DR, Hagberg JM, Hurley BF, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO (1984) Endurance training in older men and women: I. Cardiovascular responses to exercise. J Appl Physiol 57:1024–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sillampää E, Häkkinen A, Nyman K, Cheng S, Karavirta L, Laaksonen DE, Huuhka N, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K (2008) Body composition and fitness during strength and/or endurance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:950–958Google Scholar
  77. Sillampää E, Häkkinen A, Punnonen K, Häkkinen K, Laaksonen DE (2009a) Effects of strength and endurance training on metabolic risk factors in healthy 40–65-year-old men. Scand J Med Sci Sports 19:885–895Google Scholar
  78. Sillampää E, Laaksonen DE, Häkkinen A, Karavirta L, Jensen B, Kraemer WJ, Nyman K, Häkkinen K (2009b) Body composition, fitness, and metabolic health during strength and endurance training and their combination in middle-aged and older women. Eur J Appl Physiol 106:285–296Google Scholar
  79. Silva RF, Cadore EL, Kothe G, Guedes M, Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Pinto RS, Trindade G, Kruel LF (2012) Concurrent training with different aerobic exercises. Int J Sports Med 33(8):627–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Snijders T, Verdijk LB, van Loon LJC (2009) The impact of sarcopenia and exercise training on skeletal muscle satellite cells. Ageing Res Rev 8:328–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Tracy BL, Ivey FM, Hurlbut D, Martel GF, Lemmer JT, Siegel EL, Metter EJ, Fozard JL, Fleg JL, Hurley BF (1999) Muscle quality. II. Effects of strength training in 65- to 75-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol 86:195–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Umpierre D, Ribeiro PA, Kramer CK, Leitão CB, Zucatti AT, Azevedo MJ, Gross JL, Ribeiro JP, Schaan BD (2011) Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 305:1790–1799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Valkeinen H, Alén M, Häkkinen A, Hannonen P, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Häkkinen K (2008) Effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on physical fitness and symptoms in postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89:1660–1666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Wood RH, Reyes R, Welsch MA, Favarolo-Sabatier J, Sabatier M, Lee CM, Johnson LG, Hooper PF (2001) Concurrent cardiovascular and resistance training in healthy older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1751–1758PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Aging Association 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Exercise Research Laboratory, Physical Education SchoolFederal University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Health SciencesPublic University of NavarreTudelaSpain

Personalised recommendations