, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 1949–1959 | Cite as

ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms as potential factors in modulating exercise-related phenotypes in older women in response to a muscle power training stimuli

  • Ana Pereira
  • Aldo M. Costa
  • Mikel IzquierdoEmail author
  • António J. Silva
  • Estela Bastos
  • Mário C. Marques


Genetic variation of the human ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms subsequent to 12 weeks of high-speed power training on maximal strength (1RM) of the arm and leg muscles, muscle power performance (counter-movement jump), and functional capacity (sit-to-stand test) was examined in older Caucasian women [n = 139; mean age 65.5 (8.2) years; 67.0 (10.0) kg and 1.57 (0.06) m]. Chelex 100 was used for DNA extraction, and genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. Muscular strength, power, and functional testing were conducted at baseline (T1) and after 12 weeks (T2) of high-speed power training. At baseline, the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms were not associated with muscle function or muscularity phenotypes in older Caucasian women. After the 12-week high-speed training program, subjects significantly increased their muscular and functional capacity performance (p < 0.05). For both polymorphisms, significant genotype-training interaction (p < 0.05) was found in all muscular performance indices, except for 1RM leg extension in the ACE I/D (p = 0.187). Analyses of the combined effects between genotypes showed significant differences in all parameters (p < 0.05) in response to high-speed power training between the power (ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus “non-power” muscularity-oriented genotypes (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. Our data suggest that the ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (single or combined) exert a significant influence in the muscle phenotypes of older Caucasian women in response to high-speed power training. Thus, the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms are likely factors in modulating exercise-related phenotypes in older women, particularly in response to a resistance training stimuli.


Genotype Converting-enzyme genotype r577x genotypes Women Power 



We would like to thank all the women who participated as subjects in this study as well as their mentor, Miguel Monteiro, Ph.D. of Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, for allowing them to do so. The study was developed according to a research fellowship with reference number SFRH/BD/47114/2008, funded by POPH–QREN—shared by the European Social Fund and the national funds of MCTES. The authors are also indebted to the Spanish Department of Health and Institute Carlos III of the Government of Spain [Spanish Net on Aging and frailty; (RETICEF)], Department of Health of the Government of Navarre, and Economy and Competitivity Department of the Government of Spain for financing this research with grants numbered RD06/013/1003, 87/2010, and DEP2011-24105, respectively The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.


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Copyright information

© American Aging Association 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Pereira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aldo M. Costa
    • 2
    • 4
  • Mikel Izquierdo
    • 3
    Email author
  • António J. Silva
    • 1
    • 2
  • Estela Bastos
    • 5
  • Mário C. Marques
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Sport SciencesUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  2. 2.Research Centre in SportsHealth and Human DevelopmentVila RealPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Health SciencesPublic University of NavarreTudelaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Sport SciencesUniversity of Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal
  5. 5.Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Genomics and BiotechnologyUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

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