The association between systemic inflammation and cognitive performance in the elderly: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study
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Inflammation may contribute to cognitive decline and dementia. This study examined the cross-sectional relationships between markers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukins-1β, -6, -8, -10, -12, plasminogen activator inhibitor, serum amyloid A, tumour necrosis factor-α and vascular adhesion molecule-1) and cognitive function in 873 non-demented community-dwelling elderly participants aged 70–90 years. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationships between cognitive domains and inflammatory markers, controlling for age, sex, education, cardiovascular risk factors, obesity and other metabolic factors, smoking, alcohol consumption, depression and presence of the apolipoprotein ε4 genotype. Regression analyses were repeated using four factors derived from a factor analysis of the cognitive tests. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, associations remained between raised levels of interleukin-12 and reduced performance in processing speed. Marked sex differences were noted in the abovementioned findings, with only females being significantly affected. Using the four factors derived from the factor analyses of cognitive test as dependent variables, interleukins-12 and -6 were both associated with the processing speed/executive function factor, even after controlling for relevant confounding factors. Thus, markers of systemic inflammation are related to cognitive deficits in a non-clinical community-dwelling elderly population, independent of depression, cardiovascular or metabolic risk factors, or presence of apolipoprotein ε4 genotype. Additional research is required to elucidate the pathophysiology and longitudinal development of these relationships.
KeywordsInflammation Ageing Cytokines Inflammaging Cognition Dementia
This study was supported by a Dementia Research Grant through the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (Grant ID 510124).
The Sydney MAS is supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Program Grant (Grant ID 350833). The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of Brain and Ageing Research Program Staff especially Kristan Kang, Simone Reppermund and Melissa Slavin as well all MAS participants.
DNA was extracted by Genetic Repositories Australia, which is supported by an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Grant (grant ID 401184). Arezoo Assareh and Karen Mather undertook the APOE genotyping in the laboratory of Peter Schofield and John Kwok at Neuroscience Research Australia.
We would also like to acknowledge and thank the accredited laboratory SEALS for their contribution.
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