, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 283–296 | Cite as

Age-related decreases in SYN levels associated with increases in MAP-2, apoE, and GFAP levels in the rhesus macaque prefrontal cortex and hippocampus

  • Gwendolen E. Haley
  • Steven G. Kohama
  • Henryk F. Urbanski
  • Jacob Raber


Loss of synaptic integrity in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play an integral role in age-related cognitive decline. Previously, we showed age-related increases in the dendritic marker microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the synaptic marker synaptophysin (SYN) in mice. Similarly, apolipoprotein E (apoE), involved in lipid transport and metabolism, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a glia specific marker, increase with age in rodents. In this study, we assessed whether these four proteins show similar age-related changes in a nonhuman primate, the rhesus macaque. Free-floating sections from the PFC and hippocampus from adult, middle-aged, and aged rhesus macaques were immunohistochemically labeled for MAP-2, SYN, apoE, and GFAP. Protein levels were measured as area occupied by fluorescence using confocal microscopy as well as by Western blot. In the PFC and hippocampus of adult and middle-aged animals, the levels of SYN, apoE, and GFAP immunoreactivity were comparable but there was a trend towards higher MAP-2 levels in middle-aged than adult animals. There was significantly less SYN and more MAP-2, apoE, and GFAP immunoreactivity in the PFC and hippocampus of aged animals compared to adult or middle-aged animals. Thus, the age-related changes in MAP-2, apoE, and GFAP levels were similar to those previously observed in rodents. On the other hand, the age-related changes in SYN levels were not, but were similar to those previously observed in the aging human brain. Taken together, these data emphasize the value of the rhesus macaque as a pragmatic translational model for human brain aging.


Aging Nonhuman primate MAP-2 Synaptophysin apoE 



The authors would like to thank Dominique Eghlidi and Sharon Kryger for their technical assistance. This work was supported by NIH Grants AG-023477, AG-029612, RR-000163, and an OHSU Tartar Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© American Aging Association, Media, PA, USA 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gwendolen E. Haley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Steven G. Kohama
    • 2
  • Henryk F. Urbanski
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jacob Raber
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Behavioral NeuroscienceOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Neuroscience, ONPRCOregon Health and Science UniversityBeavertonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  5. 5.PortlandUSA

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