Prostaglandin D2 DP1 receptor is beneficial in ischemic stroke and in acute exicitotoxicity in young and old mice
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The cardiovascular complications reported to be associated with cyclooxygenase inhibitor use have shifted our focus toward prostaglandins and their respective receptors. Prostaglandin D2 and its DP1 receptor have been implicated in various normal and pathologic conditions, but their role in stroke is still poorly defined. Here, we tested whether DP1 deletion aggravates N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced acute toxicity and whether DP1 pharmacologic activation protects mice from acute excitotoxicity and transient cerebral ischemia. Moreover, since the elderly are more vulnerable to stroke-related damage than are younger patients, we tested the susceptibility of aged DP1 knockout (DP1−/−) mice to brain damage. We found that intrastriatal injection of 15 nmol NMDA caused significantly larger lesion volumes (27.2 ± 6.4%) in young adult DP1−/− mice than in their wild-type counterparts. Additionally, intracerebroventricular pretreatment of wild-type mice with 10, 25, and 50 nmol of the DP1-selective agonist BW245C significantly attenuated the NMDA-induced lesion size by 19.5 ± 5.0%, 39.6 ± 7.7%, and 28.9 ± 7.0%, respectively. The lowest tested dose of BW245C also was able to reduce middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain infarction size significantly (21.0 ± 5.7%). Interestingly, the aggravated NMDA-induced brain damage was persistent in older DP1−/− mice as well. We conclude that the DP1 receptor plays an important role in attenuating brain damage and that selective targeting of this receptor could be considered as an adjunct therapeutic tool to minimize stroke damage.