, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 365–372 | Cite as

Liver X receptor β: maintenance of epidermal expression in intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging

  • Christopher T. Ford
  • Michael J. Sherratt
  • Christopher E. M. Griffiths
  • Rachel E. B. WatsonEmail author


Aging in human skin is the composite of time-dependent intrinsic aging plus photoaging induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Nuclear hormone receptors coordinate diverse processes including metabolic homeostasis. Liver X receptor β (LXRβ) is a close human homologue of daf-12, a regulator of nematode longevity. LXRβ is positively regulated by sirtuin-1 and resveratrol, while LXRβ-null mice show transcriptional profiles similar to those seen in aged human skin. In these studies, we examined LXRβ expression in aged and photoaged human skin. Volunteers were recruited to assess intrinsic aging and photoaging. Epidermal LXRβ mRNA was examined by in situ hybridization while protein was identified by immunofluorescence. No significant changes were observed in either LXRβ mRNA or protein expression between young and aged volunteers (mRNA p = 0.90; protein p = 0.26). Similarly, LXRβ protein expression was unaltered in photoaged skin (p = 0.75). Our data therefore suggest that, while not playing a major role in skin aging, robust cutaneous expression implies a fundamental role for LXRβ in epidermal biology.


Nuclear hormone receptors Skin Aging Liver X receptor 



CTF is supported by an MRC University of Manchester Strategic PhD studentship. We are grateful to June Bowden and Jean Bastrilles for their excellent support in volunteer recruitment.


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Copyright information

© American Aging Association, Media, PA, USA 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher T. Ford
    • 1
  • Michael J. Sherratt
    • 2
  • Christopher E. M. Griffiths
    • 1
  • Rachel E. B. Watson
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Dermatological SciencesThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Tissue Injury and RepairThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK

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