Public behavior in reducing urban air pollution: an application of the theory of planned behavior in Lahore


The present study has tried to investigate how the intentions of people to consume green and clean products, that create less air pollution, can affect their actual behavior in reducing urban air pollution. In this regard, the intentions to use green and clean products and behavior has been estimated using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in this study. The targeted population of the current study is the faculty of different public and private educational institutions in Lahore. The results of the study showed that attitude, perceived behavior control (PBC), and knowledge of people about using green products in reducing urban air pollution significantly affect their behavior. The core finding of this study was that subjective norms do not play a significant role in determining the intentions and behaviors with respect to clean and green products. The analysis has been done using IBM SPSS statistics 20 applying PCA (principal component analysis), linear regression model, and AMOS path analysis to analyze the TPB. This research can contribute for a direction in the marketing industry of green products. Moreover, it can provide a guide for the policy makers to target attitude, awareness, the intentions, and behavior of people for reducing air pollution with respect to clean and green products.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2



Analysis of moment structure


Analysis of variance


Air quality management


Behavioral intentions


Comparative fit index


Carbon monoxide


Gross domestic product


Goodness of fit index


Information integration theory




Multiple linear regression model


Nitrogen oxides


Path analysis


Pakistan Air Quality Initiative


Perceived behavioral control


Principal component analysis


Pakistan Environmental Protection Act


Pakistan Environmental Protection Council


Particulate matters


Root mean square error


Root mean square error of approximation


Subjective norms

SO2 :

Sulfur dioxide


Statistical package for social sciences


Theory of planned behavior


Theory of reasoned action


Variance inflation factor


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I am grateful to all of those with whom I have had the pleasure to work during this and other related projects. I would specially like to thank Dr. Ashfaq Ahmad, the supervisor of my research. As my teacher and mentor, he has taught me more than I could ever give him credit for here. I would also like to thank all the participants who participated actively in the survey and made this research valuable and helped me get results of better quality.

Nobody has been more important to me in the pursuit of this project than the members of my family. I would like to thank my mother, sisters and my brother, whose love and guidance are with me in whatever I pursue. They are the ultimate role model for me.

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Correspondence to Rashada Parveen.

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Parveen, R., Ahmad, A. Public behavior in reducing urban air pollution: an application of the theory of planned behavior in Lahore. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020).

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  • Theory of planned behavior
  • Air pollution
  • Intentions
  • Behavior
  • Clean products
  • Attitudes
  • Subjective norms
  • PBC