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Nephroprotective effects of curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles in cypermethrin induced renal toxicity in rabbits

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Abstract

Cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, may cause several adverse effects including nephrotoxicity. Curcumin is a nutraceutical with many pharmacological effects including nephroprotective effects. But its effective clinical use is limited due to poor bioavailability, physicochemical instability, low bioactive absorption, quick metabolization, less penetration, and targeting efficacy. To resolve these issues, curcumin is incorporated in chitosan nanoparticles. The focus of the study was to prepare and characterize curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles and evaluate their nephroprotective activity in a cypermethrin induced renal toxicity. The curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by using solvent displacement method and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, and FTIR. The prepared formulation was stable and lies within nanometer range (264.8 nm), and possessed high drug loading capacity (84.64%). Cypermethrin (24 mg/kg body weight) and Curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to 20 rabbits (4 groups) for 28 days. It was found that cypermethrin significantly increased the serum levels of creatinine, urea, and BUN and decreased glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase. Co-administration of curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles provided pronounced beneficial effects against cypermethrin-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative damage in the kidneys of rabbits. 30 mg/kg body weight of curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles have better nephroprotective effects as compared to 15 mg/kg body weight.

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Correspondence to Faqir Muhammad.

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Anwar, M., Muhammad, F., Akhtar, B. et al. Nephroprotective effects of curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles in cypermethrin induced renal toxicity in rabbits. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08051-5

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Keywords

  • Curcumin
  • Cypermethrin
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nephroprotective
  • Oxidative stress
  • Pesticide
  • Preventive therapy