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Dissipation of chlorothalonil in the presence of chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin and their combined effects on soil enzyme activity

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Abstract

The long-term application of substantial amounts of fungicides and antibiotic-polluted organic manure (OM) in greenhouse has caused the co-existence of fungicides and antibiotics in soils. However, little is known about the effects of antibiotics on the persistence of fungicides in soils or their combined effects on soil enzyme activity. In this study, fungicide chlorothalonil (CTL) alone and in combination with antibiotic chlortetracycline (CTC) or ciprofloxacin (CIP) were repeatedly added to OM-amended soil to investigate the changes in the residual characteristics of CTL and in soil dehydrogenase and urease activity. The results showed that CTL rapidly dissipated in soils with the corresponding half-lives of 0.9–3.2, which initially increased, then decreased and finally stabilized with an increased treatment frequency. The dissipation of CTL was inhibited by CTC and CIP during the first several treatments. The soil dehydrogenase and urease activity in CTL-treated soils was inhibited during the first six treatments and then recovered afterwards. Compared with the OM-amended soil+CTL treatment, the OM-amended soil+CTL+CTC and OM-amended soil+CTL+CIP treatments had stronger inhibitory effects on soil enzyme activity during the first six repeated treatments but exhibited slight stimulating effects afterwards. Therefore, the results obtained in this study suggested that the long-term co-existence of CTL, CTC, and CIP altered the dissipation characteristics of CTL in soil and affected the soil enzyme activity levels. The prudent application of large and frequent of fungicides and OM-containing antibiotic residues in greenhouses should therefore be carefully considered in order to reduce the long-term combined pollution in soils.

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Funding

The authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41771352) and the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program (No. ASTIPTRIC04) for their financial support.

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Correspondence to Fenglong Wang or Xiuguo Wang.

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Han, L., Liu, Y., Fang, K. et al. Dissipation of chlorothalonil in the presence of chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin and their combined effects on soil enzyme activity. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07753-0

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Keywords

  • Chlorothalonil
  • Long-term combined pollution
  • Residual characteristics
  • Dehydrogenase activity
  • Urease activity