Advertisement

Trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral composition, and FT-IR characterization of unrefined sea and rock salts: environmental interactions

  • 27 Accesses

Abstract

Unrefined sea salt originates from seawater, typically by natural evaporation. Being minimally processed, it contains the natural minerals and impurities of seawater. Despite the wide applications of salt for culinary and food preservation purposes, the available composition data is particularly limited. Since seawater often contains various harmful substances at a trace or ultra-trace level, their determination in unrefined salt is significant in terms of quality control and food safety. Twenty-four (24) samples of unrefined sea and rock salts retailed in Greece were studied in terms of their trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, which constitute the usual pollutants examined in seawater. In addition, samples’ color and mineralogy were recorded and their attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectra were obtained. No statistically significant differences were found between sea and rock salts regarding their trace metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) content (excluding V) and the 15 PAHs examined. ATR FT-IR succeeded to discriminate among sea, rock, flower, and underground salty water salts. Compared with the typical trace metal concentrations in seawater, quite high Pb values were determined in both sea and rock salts, whereas outliers in the rest of the trace elements examined were scarce. Median values of the sum of PAH (ΣPAHs) concentrations were calculated equal to 2.1 and 2.6 ng g−1 for sea and rock salts, respectively. Environmental interactions of salt production with trace elements and PAHs are also discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Amorim FAC, Ferreira SLC (2005) Determination of cadmium and lead in table salt by sequential multi-element flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 65:960–964. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2004.08.027

  2. Bruland KW, Lohan MC (2003) Controls of trace metals in seawater. In: Elderfield H (ed) Treatise on geochemistry. Elsevier, Atlanta, pp 23–47

  3. Butler BM, Papadimitriou S, Kennedy H (2016) The effect of mirabilite precipitation on the absolute and practical salinities of sea ice brines. Mar Chem 184:21–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2016.06.003

  4. Censi P, Mazzola S, Alonzo G, Saiano F, Patti B, Sprovieri M, Bonanno A, Spoto SE (2002) Trace element distributions in the strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea). I Evidence of rock-water interactions and pollution. Period Mineral 71:255–272

  5. Cerniglia CE, Heitkamp MA (1989) Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton

  6. Cheraghali AM, Kobarfard F, Faeizy N (2010) Heavy metals contamination of table salt consumed in Iran. Iran J Pharm Res 9:129–132

  7. Codex Alimentarius Comission: Codex standard for food grade salts. CX STAN 150–1985, Amend, 3–2006. 2006: 1–7. (http://www.justice.gov.md/file/Centrul%20de%20armonizare%20a%20legislatiei/Baza%20de%20date/Materiale%202011/Legislatie/CODEX%20STAN%20150-1985%201%20CODEX%20STANDARD%20FOR%20FOOD%20GRADE%20SALT%20CX%20STAN.pdf)

  8. Cuculić V, Frančišković-Bilinski S, Bilinski H, Maldini K, Tomas D, Tomašić N (2016) Multi-methodological approach to evaluate trace elements and major components in wetland system with subsaline and freshwater characteristics. Environ Earth Sci 75:1351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6156-6

  9. Danielsson LG, Magnusson B, Westerland S, Zhang K (1982) Trace metal determination in estuarine waters by electrothermal AAS after extraction of dithiocarbamate complexes into Freon. Anal Chim Acta 144:183–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(01)95531-X

  10. Donadio C, Bialecki A, Valla A, Dufosse L (2011) Carotenoid-derived aroma compounds detected and identified in brines and speciality sea salts (fleur de sel) produced in solar salterns from Saint-Armel (France). J Food Compos Anal 24(6):801–810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2011.03.005

  11. Eftekhari MH, Mazloomi SM, Akbarzadeh M, Ranjbar M (2014) Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran. J Environ Health Sci Eng 12:1–5. https://doi.org/10.1186/2052-336X-12-10

  12. El-Ghawi UM, Al-Sadeq AA (2006) Determination of iodine in Libyan food samples using epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res 111:31–40. https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:111:1:31

  13. Emerson SR, Huested SS (1991) Ocean anoxia and the concentrations of molybdenum and vanadium in seawater. Mar Chem 34:177–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(91)90002-E

  14. Galvis-Sánchez AC, Lopes JA, Delgadillo I, Rangel AOSS (2011) Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy application for sea salt quality evaluation. J Agr Food Chem 59:11109–11116. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf202204d

  15. Hatzianestis I, Sklivagou E (2002) Dissolved and suspended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the North Aegean Sea. Mediterr Mar Sci 3(1):89–98. https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.261

  16. Heshmati A, Vahidinia A, Salehi I (2014) Evaluation of heavy metals contamination of unrefined and refined table salt. Int J Res Stud Biosci 2:21–24

  17. Karavoltsos S, Sakellari A, Makarona A, Plavšić M, Ampatzoglou D, Bakeas E, Dassenakis M, Scoullos M (2013) Copper complexation in wet precipitation: impact of different ligand sources. Atmos Environ 80:13–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.07.068

  18. Khaniki GRJ, Dehghani MH, Mahvi AH, Nazmara S (2007) Determination of trace metal contaminants in edible salts in Tehran (Iran) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J Biol Sci 7:811–814. https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2007.811.814

  19. Lammel G, Audy O, Besis A, Efstathiou C, Eleftheriadis K, Kohoutek J, Kukučka P, Mulder MD, Přibylová P, Prokeš R, Rusina TP, Samara C, Sofuoglu A, Sofuoglu SC, Taşdemir Y, Vassilatou V, Voutsa D, Vrana B (2015) Air and seawater pollution and air–sea gas exchange of persistent toxic substances in the Aegean Sea: spatial trends of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs. Environ Sci Pollut R 22:11301–11313. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4363-4

  20. Lee Y, Nam S, Ham K, Gonzalez J, Oropeza D, Quarles D, Yoo J, Russo R (2016) Multivariate classification of edible salts: simultaneous laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Spectrochim Acta B 118:102–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2016.02.019

  21. Lichtfouse E, Badzinski H, Garrigues P, Eglinton T (1997) Ancient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in modern soils: 13C, 14C and biomarker evidence. Org Geochem 26:353–359. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(97)00009-0

  22. Masiol M, Squizzato S, Ceccato D, Pavoni B (2015) The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural coastal site in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation. Chemosphere 119:400–406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.06.086

  23. Millero FJ, Feistel R, Wright DG, McDougall TJ (2008) The composition of standard seawater and the definition of the reference - composition salinity scale. Deep-Sea Res Pt I 55:50–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2007.10.001

  24. Morris MJ, Na ES, Johnson AK (2008) Salt craving: the physiology of pathogenic sodium intake. Physiol Behav 94:709–721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2008.04.008

  25. Nameroff TJ, Balistrieri LS, Murray JW (2002) Suboxic trace metal geochemistry in the eastern tropical North Pacific. Geochem Cosmochim Acta 66:1139–1158. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(01)00843-2

  26. O'Donnell M, McQueen MJ, Yan H, Rosengren A, Averzum A, Iqbal R, Gulec S, Yusuf R, Dagenais G, Yusuf S (2014) Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 371:612–623. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1311889

  27. Saeed T, Al-Mutairi M (2000) Comparative composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sea water-soluble fractions of different Kuwaiti crude oils. Adv Environ Res 4:141–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1093-0191(00)00018-6

  28. Sakellari A, Karavoltsos S, Theodorou D, Dassenakis M, Scoullos M (2013) Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) by the marine bivalves M. galloprovincialis, P. radiata, V. verrucosa and C. chione in Mediterranean coastal microenvironments: association with metal bioavailability. Environ Monit Assess 185:3383–3395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2799-2

  29. Sakellari A, Plavšić M, Karavoltsos S, Diakos I, Dassenakis M, Proestos H (2016) Electrochemical evaluation of the organic matter content of edible sea and rock salts retailed in the Greek market. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 4(SI 2):125–132. https://doi.org/10.12944/CRNFSJ.4.Special-Issue-October.17

  30. Schintu M, Marrucci A, Marras B, Atzori M, Pellegrini D (2018) Passive sampling monitoring of PAHs and trace metals in seawater during the salvaging of the Costa Concordia wreck (Parbuckling Project). Mar Pollut Bull 135:819–827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.08.011

  31. Shariatifar N, Nejad ASM, Fathabad AE (2017) Assessment of heavy metal content in refined and unrefined salts obtained from Urmia, Iran. Toxin Rev 36:89–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/15569543.2016.1262875

  32. Soylak M, Murat I (2012) Determination of copper, cobalt, lead and iron in table salt by FAAS after separation using violuric acid and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Food Anal Methods 5:1003–1009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-011-9332-z

  33. Soylak M, Karatepe AU, Elci L, Dogan M (2003) Column preconcentration / separation and atomic absorption spectrometric determinations of some heavy metals in table salt samples using Amperlite XAD-1180. Turk J Chem 27:235–242

  34. Soylak M, Peker DSK, Turkoglu O (2008) Heavy metal contents of refined and unrefined table salts from Turkey, Egypt and Greece. Environ Monit Assess 143:267–272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9975-9

  35. Steinhauser G, Sterba JH, Poljanc K, Bichler M, Buchtela K (2006) Trace elements in rock salt and their bioavailability estimated from solubility in acid. J Trace Elem Med Biol 20:143–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2006.06.001

  36. Ul Hassan A, Din AMU, Ali S (2017) Chemical characterization of Himalayan rock salt. Pak J Sci Ind Res S A Phys Sci 60:67–71

  37. USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1997) Guidelines establishing test procedures for the analysis of pollutants (App. B, Part 136, Definition and procedures for the determination of the method detection limit): U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (pp. 265–267)

  38. USEPA U.S. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2009) Ecological toxicity information. www.epa.gov/region5superfund/ecology/html/toxprofiles.htm (date of reference: 27.11.09)

  39. Wang D, Sañudo-Wilhelmy SA (2009) Vanadium speciation and cycling in coastal waters. Mar Chem 117:52–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2009.06.001

  40. WHO (2012) Guideline: sodium intake for adults and children. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva

  41. Ya M, Wu Y, Li Y, Wang X (2017) Transport of terrigenous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affected by the coastal upwelling in the northwestern coast of South China Sea. Environ Pollut 229:60–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.05.054

  42. Yalçin Ş, Mutlu İH (2012) Structural characterization of some table salt samples by XRD, ICP, FTIR and XRF techniques. Acta Phys Pol A 121:50–52

  43. Zhang XL, Tao S, Liu WX, Yang Y, Zuo Q, Liu SZ (2005) Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on species ratios: a multimedia approach. Environ Sci Technol 39:9109–9114. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0513741

  44. Zhang J, Zhou F, Chen C, Sun X, Shi Y, Zhao H, Chen F (2018) Spatial distribution and correlation characteristics of heavy metals in the seawater, suspended particulate matter and sediments in Zhanjiang Bay, China. PLoS One 13(8):e0201414. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201414

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.

Author information

Correspondence to Sotirios Karavoltsos.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

MP is an external associate of RBI.

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 116 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Karavoltsos, S., Sakellari, A., Bakeas, E. et al. Trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral composition, and FT-IR characterization of unrefined sea and rock salts: environmental interactions. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07670-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Unrefined salt
  • Sea salt
  • Rock salt
  • Trace metals
  • PAHs
  • ATR FT-IR