Advertisement

Chemical characterization of fine aerosols in respect to water-soluble ions at the eastern Middle Adriatic coast

Abstract

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations at the Middle Adriatic coastal site of Croatia were affected by different air-mass inflows and/or local sources and meteorological conditions, and peaked in summer. More polluted continental air-mass inflows mostly affected the area in the winter period, while southern marine pathways had higher impact in spring and summer. Chemical characterization of the water-soluble inorganic and organic ionic constituents is discussed with respect to seasonal trends, possible sources, and air-mass inputs. The largest contributors to the PM2.5 mass were sea salts modified by the presence of secondary sulfate-rich aerosols indicated also by principal component analysis. SO42− was the prevailing anion, while the anthropogenic SO42− (anth-nssSO42−) dominantly constituted the major non-sea-salt SO42− (nssSO42−) fraction. Being influenced by the marine origin, its biogenic fraction (bio-nssSO42−) increased particularly in the spring. During the investigated period, aerosols were generally acidic. High Cl deficit was observed at Middle Adriatic location for which the acid displacement is primarily responsible. With nssSO42− being dominant in Cl depletion, sulfur-containing species from anthropogenic pollution emissions may have profound impact on atmospheric composition through altering chlorine chemistry in this region. However, when accounting for the neutralization of H2SO4 by NH3, the potential of HNO3 and organic acids to considerably influence Cl depletion is shown to increase. Intensive open-fire events substantially increased the PM2.5 concentrations and changed the water-soluble ion composition and aerosol acidity in summer of 2015. To our knowledge, this work presents the first time-resolved data evaluating the seasonal composition of water-soluble ions and their possible sources in PM2.5 at the Middle Adriatic area. This study contributes towards a better understanding of atmospheric composition in the coastal Adriatic area and serves as a basis for the comparison with future studies related to the air quality at the coastal Adriatic and/or Mediterranean regions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Abbasse G, Ouddane B, Fischer JC (2003) Determination of trace metal complexes by natural organic and inorganic ligands in coastal seawater. Anal Sci 19:529–535. https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.19.529

  2. Abdalmogith SS, Harrison RM (2006) An analysis of spatial and temporal properties of daily sulfate, nitrate and chloride concentrations at UK urban and rural sites. J Environ Mon 8:691–699. https://doi.org/10.1039/b601562j

  3. Adachi K, Buseck PR (2015) Changes in shape and composition of sea-salt particles upon aging in an urban atmosphere. Atmos Environ 100:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.10.036

  4. Almeida SM, Pio CA, Freitas MC, Reis MA, Trancoso MA (2006) Approaching PM2.5 and PM2.5−10 source apportionment by mass balance analysis, principal component analysis and particle size distribution. Sci Total Environ 368:663–674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.03.031

  5. Alves A, Pio C, Campos E, Barbedo P (2007) Size distribution of atmospheric particulate ionic species at a coastal site in Portugal. Quim Nova 30(8):1938–1944. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422007000800027

  6. Andreae MO, Ferek RJ, Bermond F, Byrd KP, Engstrom RT, Hardin S, Houmere PD, Lemarrec F, Raemdonck H, Chatfield RB (1985) Dimethyl sulfide in the marine atmosphere. J Geophys Res-Atmos 90(D7):2891–2900. https://doi.org/10.1029/JD090iD07p12891

  7. Athanasopoulou E, Protonotariou AP, Bossioli E, Dandou A, Tombrou M et al (2015) Aerosol chemistry above an extended archipelago of the eastern Mediterranean basin during strong northern winds. Atmos Chem Phys 15:8401–8421. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-8401-2015

  8. Ayers GP, Gras JL (1991) Seasonal relationship between cloud condensation nuclei and aerosol methanesulphonate in marine air. Nature 35(6347):834–835. https://doi.org/10.1038/353834a0

  9. Bardouki H, Liakakou H, Economou C, Sciare J, Smolik J et al (2003) Chemical composition of size resolved atmospheric aerosols in the eastern Mediterranean during summer and winter. Atmos Environ 37:195–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00859-2

  10. Behnke W, Zetzsch C (1990) Heterogeneous photochemical formation of Cl atoms from NaCl aerosol, NOx and ozone. J Aerosol Sci 21:S229–S232. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8502(90)90226-N

  11. Bougiatioti A, Zarmpas P, Koulouri E, Antonou M, Theodosi C, Kouvarakis G, Saarikoski S, Mäkelä T, Hillamo R, Mihalopoulos N (2013) Organic, elemental and water-soluble organic carbon in size segregated aerosols, in the marine boundary layer of the eastern Mediterranean. Atmos Environ 64:251–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.09.071

  12. Brown RA, Dadashazar H, MacDonald AB, Aldhaif AM, Maudlin LC et al (2017) Impact of wildfire emissions on chloride and bromide depletion in marine aerosol particles. Environ Sci Technol 51(16):9013–9021. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02039

  13. Charlson RJ, Lovelock JE, Andreae MO, Warren SG (1987) Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature 326(6114):655–661. https://doi.org/10.1038/326655a0

  14. Chuang MT, Chou CCK, Sopajaree K, Lin NH, Wang JL et al (2013) Characterization of aerosol chemical properties from near-source biomass burning in the northern Indochina during 7-SEAS/Dongsha experiment. Atmos Environ 78:72–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.06.056

  15. Clarke AD, Porter JN (1993) Pacific marine aerosol: 2. Equatorial gradients in chlorophyll, ammonium, and excess sulfate during SAGA 3. J Geophys Res-Atmos 98:16997–17010. https://doi.org/10.1029/92JD02481

  16. Cusack M, Alastuey A, Perez N, Pey J, Querol X (2012) Trends of particulate matter (PM2.5) and chemical composition at a regional background site in the Western Mediterranean over the last nine years (2002–2010). Atmos Chem Phys 12:8341–8357. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-8341-2012

  17. Daher N, Ruprecht A, Invernizzi G, De Marco C, MillerSchulze J, Heo JB, Shafer MM, Shelton BR, Schauer JJ, Sioutas C (2012) Characterization, sources and redox activity of fine and coarse particulate matter in Milan, Italy. Atmos Environ 49:130–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.12.011

  18. Engling G, Lee JJ, Tsai YW, Lung SCC, Chou CCK, Chan CY (2009) Size-resolved anhydrosugar composition in smoke aerosol from controlled field burning of rice straw. Aerosol Sci Technol 43:662–672. https://doi.org/10.1080/02786820902825113

  19. Erduran MS, Tuncel SG (2001) Gaseous and particulate air pollutants in the Northeastern Mediterranean Coast. Sci Total Environ 281:205–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00847-6

  20. Finlayson-Pitts BJ (2003) The tropospheric chemistry of sea salt: a molecular-level view of the chemistry of NaCl and NaBr. Chem Rev 103(12):4801–4822. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr020653t

  21. Fomba KW, Muller K, van Pinxteren D, Poulain L, van Pinxteren M, Herrmann H (2014) Long-term chemical characterization of tropical and marine aerosols at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) from 2007 to 2011. Atmos Chem Phys 14:8883–8904. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-8883-2014

  22. Freitas MC, Farinha MM, Ventura MG, Almeida SM, Reis MA, Pacheco AMG (2005) Gravimetric and chemical features of airborne PM10 and PM2.5 in mainland Portugal. Environ Monit Assess 109:81–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-5841-9

  23. Gambaro M, Radaelli R, Piazza R, Stortini AM, Contini D et al (2009) Organic micropollutants in wet and dry depositions in the Venice lagoon. Chemosphere 76(8):1017–1022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.04.063

  24. Harris E, Sinha B, Hoppe P, Ono S (2013) High-precision measurements of 33S and 34S fractionation during SO2 oxidation reveal causes of seasonality in SO2 and sulfate isotopic composition. Environ Sci Technol 47:12174–12183. https://doi.org/10.1021/es402824c

  25. Hoffmann EH, Tilgner A, Schrodner R, Brauer P, Wolke R, Herrmann H (2016) An advanced modeling study on the impacts and atmospheric implications of multiphase dimethyl sulfide chemistry. PNAS 113(42):11776–11781. https://doi.org/10.1021/es402824c

  26. Hsu SC, Liu SC, Kao SJ, Jeng WL, Huang YT et al (2007) Water-soluble species in the marine aerosol from the northern South China Sea: high chloride depletion related to air pollution. J Geophysl Res 112:D19304. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008844

  27. Ivošević T, Stelcer E, Orlić I, Bogdanović Radović I, Cohen D (2016) Characterization and source apportionment of fine particulate sources at Rijeka, Croatia from 2013 to 2015. Nucl Instrum Meth B 371:376–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2015.10.023

  28. Jaffe D, Hafner W, Chand D, Westerling A, Spracklen D (2008) Interannual variations in PM2.5 due to wildfires in the Western United States. Environ Sci Technol 42:2812–2818. https://doi.org/10.1021/es702755v

  29. Jickells TD, Kelly SD, Baker AR, Biswas K, Dennis PF et al (2003) Isotopic evidence for a marine ammonia source. Geophys Res Lett 30:1374. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016728

  30. Kaiser HF (1960) The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educ Psychol Meas 20:141–151. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000116

  31. Kanakidou M, Mihalopoulos N, Kindap T, Im U, Vrekoussis M et al (2011) Megacities as hot spots of air pollution in the East Mediterranean. Atmos Environ 45:1223–1235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.11.048

  32. Kawamura K, Bikkina S (2016) A review of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols: molecular distributions, sources and transformation. Atmos Res 170:140–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.11.018

  33. Kawamura K, Ikushima K (1993) Seasonal changes in the distribution of dicarboxylic acids in the urban atmosphere. Environ Sci Technol 27:2227–2235. https://doi.org/10.1021/es00047a033

  34. Kawamura K, Sakaguchi F (1999) Molecular distributions of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids in marine aerosols over the Pacific Ocean including tropics. J Geophys Res 104(D3):3501–3509. https://doi.org/10.1029/1998JD100041

  35. Knipping EM, Dabdub D (2003) Impact of chlorine emissions from sea-salt aerosol on coastal urban ozone. Environ Sci Technol 37(2):275–284. https://doi.org/10.1021/es025793z

  36. Koçak M, Kubilay N, Mihalopoulos N (2004) Ionic composition of lower tropospheric aerosols at a northeastern Mediterranean site: implications regarding sources and long-range transport. Atmos Environ 38:2067–2077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.030

  37. Koçak M, Mihalopoulos N, Kubilay N (2007) Chemical composition of the fine and coarse fraction of aerosols in the northeastern Mediterranean. Atmos Environ 41(34):7351–7368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.05.011

  38. Kopanakis I, Eleftheriadis K, Mihalopoulos N, Lydakis Simantiris N, Katsivela E et al (2012) Physico-chemical characteristics of particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean. Atmos Res 106:93–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.11.011

  39. Kouvarakis G, Vrekoussis M, Mihalopoulos N, Kourtidis K, Rappenglueck B et al (2002) Spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric ozone in the boundary layer above the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean). J Geophys Res 107:8137. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000081

  40. Laskin A, Moffet RC, Gilles MK, Fast JD, Zaveri RA, Wang B, Nigge P, Shutthanandan J (2012) Tropospheric chemistry of internally mixed sea salt and organic particles: surprising reactivity of NaCl with weak organic acids. J Geophys Res 117:D15302. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017743

  41. Lewis ER, Schwartz SE (2004) Sea salt aerosol production: mechanisms, methods, measurements and models–a critical review. Geophysical monograph series 152. AGU, Washington DC, p 413

  42. Li J, Pósfai M, Hobbs PV, Buseck PR (2003) Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2, compositions and aging of inorganic particles. J Geophys Res 108:347–362. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002310

  43. Liss PS, Lovelock JE (2007) Climate change: the effect of DMS emissions. Environ Chem 4(6):377–378. https://doi.org/10.1071/EN07072

  44. Luria M, Peleg M, Sharf G, Siman Tov-Alper D, Spitz N et al (1996) Atmospheric sulfur over the Eastern Mediterranean region. J Geophys Res 101:25917–25930. https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD01579

  45. Malaguti A, Mircea M, La Torretta TMG, Telloli C, Petralia E et al (2015) Chemical composition of fine and coarse aerosol particles in the central Mediterranean area during dust and non-dust conditions. Aerosol Air Qual Res 15:410–425. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2014.08.0172

  46. Marić D, Kraus R, Godrijan J, Supić N, Djakovac T, Precali R (2012) Phytoplankton response to climatic and anthropogenic influences in the north-eastern Adriatic during the last four decades. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 115:98–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.02.003

  47. Maudlin LC, Wang Z, Jonsson HH, Sorooshian A (2015) Impact of wildfires on size-resolved aerosol composition at a coastal California site. Atmos Environ 119:59–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.08.039

  48. Merico E, Donateo A, Gambaro A, Cesari D, Gregoris E et al (2016) Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy. Atmos Environ 139:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.024

  49. Mermex Group (2011) Marine ecosystems responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcings in the Mediterranean. Prog Ocean 91(2):97–166

  50. Meskhidze N, Nenes A (2006) Phytoplankton and cloudiness in the Southern Ocean. Science 314(5804):1419–1423. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1131779

  51. Mihalopoulos N, Stephanou E, Kanakidou M, Pilitsidis S, Bousquet P (1997) Tropospheric aerosol ionic composition in the eastern Mediterranean region. Tellus B 49:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0889.49.issue3.7.x

  52. Millero FJ (2006) Chemical oceanography, 3rd edn. CRC Press, 530 pp

  53. Monahan EC, Spiel DE, Davidson KL (1986) A model of marine aerosol generation via whitecaps and wave disruption. In: Monahan EC, MacNiocaill G (eds) Oceanic whitecaps and their role in air–sea exchange processes. D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp 167–174

  54. Morabito E, Contini D, Belosi F, Stortini AM, Manodori L et al (2014) Atmospheric deposition of inorganic elements and organic compounds at the inlets of the Venice lagoon. Adv Meteorol 158902:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/158902

  55. Norton RB, Roberts JM, Huebert BJ (1983) Tropospheric oxalate. Geophys Res Lett 10:517–520. https://doi.org/10.1029/GL010i007p00517

  56. O’Dowd CD, Hoffmann T (2005) Coastal new particle formation: a review of the current state of the art. Environ Chem 2(4):245–255. https://doi.org/10.1071/EN05077

  57. O'Dowd CD, de Leeuw G (2007) Marine aerosol production: a review of the current knowledge. Philos T Roy Soc A 65(1856):1753–1774. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2007.2043

  58. Pachon JE, Weber RJ, Zhang X, Mulholland JA, Russell AG (2013) Revising the use of potassium (K) in the source apportionment of PM2.5. Atmos Pollut Res 4:14–21. https://doi.org/10.5094/APR.2013.002

  59. Park KT, Jang S, Lee K, Jun Yoon Y, Kim MS et al (2017) Observational evidence for the formation of DMS-derived aerosols during Arctic phytoplankton blooms. Atmos Chem Phys 17:9665–9675. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-9665-2017

  60. Perrone MR, Piazzalunga A, Prato M, Carofalo I (2011) Composition of fine and coarse particles in a coastal site of the central Mediterranean: carbonaceous species contributions. Atmos Environ 45:7470–7477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.04.030

  61. Perrone MR, Becagli S, Orza JAG, Vecchi R, Dinoi A, Udisti R, Cabello M (2013) The impact of long-range transport on PM1 and PM2.5 at a central Mediterranean site. Atmos Environ 71:176–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.02.006

  62. Piazzola J, Forget P, Lafon C, Despiau S (2009) Spatial variation of sea-spray fluxes over a Mediterranean coastal zone using a sea state model. Bound Lay Meteorol 132(1):167–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-009-9386-2

  63. Piazzola J, Mihalopoulos N, Canepa E, Tedeschi G, Prati P et al (2016) Characterization of aerosols above the northern Adriatic Sea: case studies of offshore and onshore wind conditions. Atmos Environ 132:153–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-009-9386-2

  64. Quinn PK, Bates TS (2005) Regional aerosol properties: comparisons of boundary layer measurements from ACE1, ACE2, aerosols99, INDOEX, ACE asia, TARFOX, and NEAQS. J Geophys Res 110:D14202. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004755

  65. Quinn PK, Charlson RJ, Bates TS (1988) Simultaneous observations of ammonia in the atmosphere and ocean. Nature 335:336–338. https://doi.org/10.1038/335336a0

  66. Quinn PK, Coffman DJ, Bates TS, Miller TL, Johnson JE, Welton EJ, Neususs C, Miller MP, Sheridan J (2002) Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: means, variability, and controlling factors. J Geophys Res 107(D19):1–19. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000037

  67. Richon C, Dutay JC, Dulac F, Wang R, Balkanski Y et al (2017) Modeling the impacts of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and desert dust–derived phosphorus on nutrients and biological budgets of the Mediterranean Sea. Prog Oceanogr 163:21–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2017.04.009

  68. Rossini P, Guerzoni S, Molinaroli E, Rampazzo G, de Lazzari A, Zancanaro A (2005) Atmospheric bulk deposition to the lagoon of Venice: part I. Fluxes of metals, nutrients and organic contaminants. Environ Int 31(7):959–974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.05.006

  69. Salameh D, Detournay A, Pey J, Pérez N, Liguori F et al (2015) PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: a 1-year study. Atmos Res 155:102–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.12.001

  70. Savoie DL, Prospero JM (1989) Comparison of oceanic and continental sources of non-sea-salt sulphate over the Pacific Ocean. Nature 339:685–689. https://doi.org/10.1038/339685a0

  71. Sciare J, Favez O, Sarda-Estève R, Oikonomou K, Cachier H, Kazan V (2009) Long-term observations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Austral Ocean atmosphere: evidence of a biogenic marine organic source. J Geophys Res 114:D15302. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD011998

  72. Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (2006) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change, 2nd edn. John Wiley, New York

  73. Stefels J, Steinke M, Turner S, Malin G, Belviso S (2007) Environmental constraints on the production and removal of the climatically active gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) and implications for ecosystem modelling. Biogeochemistry 83(1–3):245–275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-007-9091-5

  74. Stortini M, Freda A, Cesari D, Cairns WRL, Contini D et al (2009) An evaluation of the PM2.5 trace elemental composition in the Venice lagoon area and an analysis of the of the possible sources. Atmos Environ 43(44):6296–6304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.09.033

  75. Takami A, Miyoshia T, Shimonob A, Hatakeyamaet S (2005) Chemical composition of fine aerosol measured by AMS at Fukue Island, Japan during APEX period. Atmos Environ 39:4913–4924. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.04.038

  76. Topping D, Coe H, McFiggans G, Burgess R, Allan J et al (2004) Aerosol chemical characteristics from sampling conducted on the island of Jeju, Korea during ace Asia. Atmos Environ 38:2111–2123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.022

  77. Turquety S, Menut L, Bessagnet B, Anav A, Viovy N et al (2014) APIFLAMEv1.0: high-resolution fire emission model and application to the Euro-Mediterranean region. Geosci Model Dev 7:587–612. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-587-2014

  78. Turšič J, Podkrajšek B, Grgić I, Ctyroky P, Berner et al (2006) Chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of size-segregated aerosol particles collected at the Adriatic coast of Slovenia. Chemosphere 63(7):1193–1202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.08.040

  79. Udisti R, Dayan U, Becagli S, Busetto M, Frosini et al (2012) Sea spray aerosol in Central Antarctica. Present atmospheric behaviour and implications for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Atmos Environ 52:109–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.018

  80. Udisti R, Bazzano A, Becagli S, Bolzacchini E, Caiazzo L, Cappelletti D, Ferrero L, Frosini D, Giardi F, Grotti M, Lupi A, Malandrino M, Mazzola M, Moroni B, Severi M, Traversi R, Viola A, Vitale V (2016) Sulfate source apportionment in the Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands) Arctic aerosol. Rend Lincei Sci Fis 27:85–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12210-016-0517-7

  81. Unger N (2013) Isoprene emission variability through the twentieth century. J Geophys Res Atmos 118:13606–13613. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020978

  82. Vardoulakis S, Kassomenos P (2008) Sources and factors affecting PM10 levels in two European cities: implications for local air quality management. Atmos Environ 42:3949–3963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.12.021

  83. Wang HB, Shooter D (2001) Water soluble ions of atmospheric aerosols in three New Zealand cities: seasonal changes and sources. Atmos Environ 35(34):6031–6040. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00437-X

  84. Warneck P (2003) In-cloud chemistry opens pathway to the formation of oxalic acid in the marine atmosphere. Atmos Environ 37:2423–2427. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00171-5

  85. Wu PM, Okada K (1994) Nature of coarse nitrate particles in the atmosphere–a single particle approach. Atmos Environ 28:2053–2060. https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(94)90473-1

  86. Yamasoe MA, Artaxo P, Miguel AH, Allen AG (2000) Chemical composition of aerosol particles from direct emissions of vegetation fires in the Amazon Basin: water soluble species and trace elements. Atmos Env 34:1641–1653. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00329-5

  87. Yoon YJ, Ceburnis D, Cavalli F, Jourdan O, Putaud JP, Facchini MC et al (2007) Seasonal characteristics of the physicochemical properties of North Atlantic marine atmospheric aerosols. J Geophys Res J 112:D04206. https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD007044

  88. Zauscher MD, Wang Y, Moore MJK, Gaston CJ, Prather KA (2013) Air quality impact and physicochemical aging of biomass burning aerosols during the 2007 San Diego wildfires. Environ Sci Technol 47(14):7633–7643. https://doi.org/10.1021/es4004137

  89. Zhang YN, Zhang ZS, Chan CY, Engling G, Sang XF, Shi S, Wang XM (2012) Levoglucosan and carbonaceous species in the background aerosol of coastal Southeast China: case study on transport of biomass burning smoke from the Philippines. Environ Sci Poll Res 19:244–255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-011-0548-7

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors also acknowledge Jadranka Škevin Sović, Ana Šutić and Ivona Igrec from Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service for gravimetric measurements.

Funding information

The authors acknowledge the financial support from the projects “The Sulphur and Carbon Dynamics in the Sea and Fresh-Water Environment” (IP-11-2013-1205 SPHERE), Slovenian Research Agency (Contract No. P1-0034), STSM COST Action European Network on New Sensing Technologies for Air-Pollution Control and Environmental Sustainability (EuNetAir), and Croatian-Slovenian bilateral project “Estimating the role of marine biogenic organosulfur compounds in the formation and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols.”

Author information

Correspondence to Sanja Frka.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Gerhard Lammel

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOC 502 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cvitešić Kušan, A., Kroflič, A., Grgić, I. et al. Chemical characterization of fine aerosols in respect to water-soluble ions at the eastern Middle Adriatic coast. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07617-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • PM2.5
  • Water-soluble ions
  • Sea salt
  • Secondary sulfate
  • Aerosol acidity
  • Cl depletion
  • Adriatic Sea